The Black Plague

The Black Plague
: From the early fourteenth to late seventeenth century,
Europe was decimated by one of the most horrifying
pestilence’s human kind has ever known(Coulton 493). The
killer’s name was later to be recognized by the detrimental
consummation it had seized upon a person’s life. It was
known as the Black Plague. This terrible epidemic exhausted
small towns across Europe, including the British Isles,
brutally killing an incredulous amount of people. The
disease had wiped out entire villages leaving dead bodies to
decompose within the gutters of streets and corners of
allies(Ziegler 17). Though people were introduced to the
severity of the plague, they were still mystified as to the
causes of the deadly disease. Because of this fact, a
parade of unconfirmed myths and questionable facts had
arisen concerning the sources of the abhorrent epidemic for
over five centuries(Coulton 493). In the nineteenth
century, the causes of the terrifying pestilence was
discovered and the Black Death was no longer
a conundrum. One myth, of the origin of the deadly plague
was said to be a result of medieval gas warfare. Yet
another myth, stated that the murderous disease was an
aftereffect of a great earthquake that occurred in Europe.
Scientists even believed that the epidemic was caused by
Paolilli 2
heaps of unburned corpses left in churchyards(Beatty and
Marks 80). The last proven cause of the pestilence was
found to be a disease of rats and other related
animals(Rowling 186).
One of the myths as to the cause of the Black Plague is
quite an unusual story that was formed by peoples
unexplainable imaginations. One of the probable derivations
of the epidemic supposedly was born in a terrible war that
had occurred between the deadly waters of the Indian Ocean
and the sun(Ziegler 14). The immense waters of the
treacherous blue ocean were lifted up like a solid wall of
concrete to fight the flaming sun. As the wall stood in the
midst of the air still touching the base of the water,
dangerous vapors began to disperse from the water. The
high winds spurred the poisonous fumes spurred out in every
direction(Ziegler 14). The plague reached the nearby lands
and the epidemic began to take it’s murderous route. This
myth arose from small villages as people spread rumor after
rumor from the stories they had once heard as to the
unexplainable causes of the plague. Though this tale is
entirely nonsensical, people were still mystified because of
the secrecy as to the causes that they were eager to believe
any explanation that there was to offer concerning the
deadly plague.
Paolilli 3
Another myth, as to the beginning of the dreadful
virus, is it arose from poisonous fumes as a direct result
of earthquakes that occurred during the Medieval times. It
was stated that a horrendous amount of pressure
had been building up underneath the Earth for several
years(Ziegler 21). Poisonous gases then began to stir
amongst each other. Then terrible earthquakes had rocked
Europe and the poisonous fumes, that were once enclosed by
the several layers of earth, were now being released through
cracks into the atmosphere. This viperous cloud streamed
across Europe and killed each individual who it met(Ziegler
21).


Next, it was stated that the epidemic was caused by
innumerable layers of unburned corpses that were left in
churchyards(Beatty and Marks 81). A man named Galen had
stated,
The infection arose from ‘Inspiration of air
infected with a putrid exhalation. The beginning
of the putrescence may be a multitude of unburned corpses, as may happen in war; or the exhalations
of marshes and ponds in the summer'(Ziegler 22).
A Dr. Crighton also supported the findings th…..at the plague
had originated within the piles of dead corpses that were
left unburied. He stated that specific incidents that would
explain the tremendous amount of people left dead are
directly related to the tragedies that had struck
Paolilli 4
China(Ziegler 24). He also concluded that, the probable
reason why there was such a high death rate among church
affiliated persons is the dead were buried in churchyards
where the priests and monks lived close to. The church
related people had obtained cadaveric poisoning from the
enormous amount of dead bodies and diseases that lied within
the corpses.


Finally, the real truth to the origin of the Black
Plague was found essentially to be a pestilence of rats and
other small related animals(Rowling 186). This theory
somewhat coincides with the previous idea of the birthplace
of the epidemic being found in the mounds of dead bodies,
and also the incredibly high death rate that was cradled in
Central Asia between 1338 and 1339(Beatty and Marks 72).
The origin of the plague began when
a bacteria known as Pasteurella Pestis, which
formed itself within the piles of dead corpses,
had found it’s home either in the bloodstream of
an animal or the stomach of a flea(Ziegler 25).
During the time of the deaths in 1338 and 1339 in Central
Asia, near Lake Issyk-Koul, the rat was in great abundance
and in turn, so were the fleas(Beatty and Marks 72). The
fleas carried this deadly virus within their
bloodstream(Coulton 493). They would attack countless
numbers of rats by protruding their skin and transferring
the epidemic into the rats body(Rowling 186). Then a
Paolilli 5
“massive exodus”(Ziegler 26) took place where the carrier of
the disease, the black rat, made a tremendous move to a
different various parts of Europe, including the British
Isles, for a reason that is still a mystery.
The Plague Research Commission of 1910
commented’ the transference of infected rats and
fleas in merchandise or, in the case of fleas,
on the body of a human being is a
probable cause of the spread of the deadly virus(Ziegler 27).
So basically, people had received the disease from rats
poisoning a persons food and living within their homes. It
was incredible easy for a person to become infected with the
disease. The disease continuously dispersed itself across
the continent of Europe by repeating this process
continuously(Rowling 188).
In conclusion, the Black Death became known as one of
the most mysterious and deadliest plagues to ever touch our
world. In medieval Europe, during this time, the epidemic
drastically decreased the population in Europe leaving only
a sparse number of people to remain(Rowling 188). It had
terrified the hearts of every person in Europe to know that
an unexplainable disease, of that magnitude, was out there.
The once positive outlook people had on the life of the
thirteenth century had perished along with the many lives
the plague took along with it(Rowling 188). The mystery of
the causes of the plague took over five centuries to
uncover. Several unjustifiable phenomenon and myths were
devised during this period concerning the causes of this
disease. To this day, people still find it mind-shattering
to believe the magnitude the disease had upon an entire
continent and the number of deaths it had caused.
Bibliography
Beatty, William K., and Geoffrey Marks. Epidemics. New York:
Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976.


Coulton, G.G. Medieval Panorama: The English Scene From
Conquest to Reformation. New York: W.W. Norton and
Company Inc., 1974.


Rowling, Majorie. Everyday life in Medieval Times. New
York: Dorset Press, 1968.


Ziegler, Philip. The Black Death. New York: Harper and Row
Publishers, 1969.

dfssd

MS-DOS Device Drivers
April 1998
—————————————–
(c) Copyright Microsoft Corporation, 1998
This document provides complementary or late-breaking
information to supplement the Microsoft Windows 98
documentation.


————————
How to Use This Document
————————
To view Msdosdrv.txt on-screen in Notepad, maximize
the Notepad window.


To print Msdosdrv.txt, open it in Notepad or another
word processor, and then on the File menu, click Print.


In syntax lines, except where noted, lowercase text
signifies replaceable parameters and uppercase text
signifies text that must be typed as it appears.


NOTE: The Config.txt file contains more Help for MS-DOS
commands. In addition, you can type the name of the
command at the command prompt, followed by a slash and
question mark (/?). For example: CHKDSK /?
If you have the Windows 98 CD, you can get additional
help on MS-DOS commands, including syntax and examples.
You can load the MS-DOS 6.0 help file by browsing the
oolsoldmsdos folder, and then clicking Help.


——–
CONTENTS
——–
ANSI.SYS
DBLBUFF.SYS – DOUBLE BUFFERING
DISPLAY.SYS
DRVSPACE.SYS, DBLSPACE.SYS
EMM386.EXE
HIMEM.SYS
RAMDRIVE.SYS
SETVER.EXE
————————————
ANSI.SYS
=========
NOTE: In this section, uppercase letters in syntax
and ANSI escape sequences indicate text you must type
exactly as it appears.


ANSI.SYS defines functions that change display graphics,
controls cursor movement, and reassigns keys. The
ANSI.SYS device driver supports ANSI terminal emulation
of escape sequences to control your system’s screen and
keyboard.


This device driver must be loaded by a DEVICE or
DEVICEHIGH command in your CONFIG.SYS file.


Syntax
DEVICE=drive:pathANSI.SYS /X /K /R
Parameter
drive:path
Specifies the location of the ANSI.SYS file.


Switches
/X
Remaps extended keys independently on 101-key
keyboards.


/K
Causes ANSI.SYS to treat a 101-key keyboard like
an 84-key keyboard. It is equivalent to the command
SWITCHES=/K. If you usually use the SWITCHES=/K
command, you will need to use the /K switch with
ANSI.SYS.


/R
Adjusts line scrolling to improve readability when
ANSI.SYS is used with screen-reading programs (which
make computers more accessible to people with
disabilities).


Parameters used in ANSI escape sequences:
Pn
Numeric parameter. Specifies a decimal number.


Ps
Selective parameter. Specifies a decimal number
that you use to select a function. You can specify
more than one function by separating the parameters
with semicolons (;).


PL
Line parameter. Specifies a decimal number that
represents one of the lines on your screen or on
another device.


Pc
Column parameter. Specifies a decimal number that
represents one of the columns on your screen or on
another device.


ANSI escape sequences for cursor movement, graphics, and
keyboard settings:
In the following list of ANSI escape sequences, the
abbreviation ESC represents the ASCII escape character
27 (1Bh), which appears at the beginning of each escape
sequence.


ESCPL;PcH
Cursor Position: Moves the cursor to the specified
position (coordinates). If you do not specify a
position, the cursor moves to the home position–the
upper-left corner of the screen (line 0, column 0).
This escape sequence works the same way as the following
Cursor Position escape sequence.


ESCPL;Pcf
Cursor Position: Works the same way as the preceding
Cursor Position escape sequence.


ESCPnA
Cursor Up: Moves the cursor up by the specified number
of lines without changing columns. If the cursor is
already on the top line, ANSI.SYS ignores this sequence.


ESCPnB
Cursor Down: Moves the cursor down by the specified
number of lines without changing columns. If the cursor
is already on the bottom line, ANSI.SYS ignores this
sequence.


ESCPnC
Cursor Forward: Moves the cursor forward by the
specified number of columns without changing lines.
If the cursor is already in the far right column,
ANSI.SYS ignores this sequence.


ESCPnD
Cursor Backward: Moves the cursor backward by the
specified number of columns without changing lines. If
the cursor is already in the far left column, ANSI.SYS
ignores this sequence.


ESCs
Save Cursor Position: Saves the current cursor position.
You can move the cursor to the saved cursor position by
using the Restore Cursor Position sequence.


ESCu
Restore Cursor Position: Returns the cursor to the
position stored by the Save Cursor Position sequence.


ESC2J
Erase Display: Clears the screen and moves the cursor
to the home position (line 0, column 0).


ESCK
Erase Line: Clears all characters from the cursor
position to the end of the line (including the character
located at the cursor position).


ESCPs;…;Psm
Set Graphics Mode: Calls the graphics functions specified
by the following values. These specified functions remain
active until the next occurrence of this escape sequence.
Graphics mode changes the colors and attributes of text
(such as bold and underline) displayed on the screen.


Text attributes
ValueFunction
————————————
0All attributes off
1Bold on
4Underscore (on monochrome display adapter only)
5Blink on
7Reverse video on
8Concealed on
Foreground colors
ValueFunction
————————————
30Black
31Red
32Green
33Yellow
34Blue
35Magenta
36Cyan
37White

Indonesia

Indonesia
This essay will be on the History in Brief of Indoneisa, the Government
of Indoneisia, the island of Java, and the Geography of Indoneisa.


In early days, the region from India to Japan, including Indonesia, was
known to the Europeans as the Indies. Chris Colombus was looking for a westward
sea roots from Europe to the Indies when he arrived in America. During 1600’s
dutch political control began to spread Indonesia.


Indonesia declared it’s independencein 1945 and fought the Dutch until
1949 when they gave up their control.


At first, the Dutch allowed nationalist movement to delevope. In 1905,
it had introduced municipal councils to govern the towns and cities. By 1920,
there were 32 such councils, with little electorial franchise.


Other councils were also established. They included provicial councils
in Java, and group communities concils outside Java.


The government of Indonesia is based on a constitution written in 1945.

A president serves as the head of government. The president apionts a sheet of
advisers consisting of top military leaders and civillians.


In theory, the peoples console assembly is supposed to establish a
general direction of the government’s policys.


A house of peoples Representatives is the nations parlament, however, in
practice neither the assembly nor the house has real power. Instead, it is the
president who makes all of the important decisions.


The president is elected to a five year term the Peoples Consulative
assembly. Te assembly has 1,000 members. It includes the 500 members of the
peoples representives. It also includes 500 members of regional, occupational,
and other groups.


All assembly members serve five year terms. The assembly usually is only
held once every five years. The 500 members of the People’s Representatives
includes 400 who are elected through a system that insures that the government’s
potlitical organization win most of the seats. Servicmen have no vote, so the
remaining 100 are appointed by the president on the reccomendation of the
comander of the armed forces.


Indonesia is divided into twenty-seven provinces. The provinces are
divided into regioncies and municipalities. These units are further divided
into villages.


Officials of all local government units exept villages are appointed by
central government from lists of people nominated by regional legislators.

Indonesian villages elect their own village officials to provide local
government.


Java lies between Sumatra (to the west), and Bali (to the east).To
the north is the Java Sea. To the south is the Indian Ocean which Indonesians
call the Indonesian Ocean.


The greatest distance from North Java to South Java is two hundred
kilometers. From East Java to West Java is over one thousand kilometers.


The island of Java has five administrative units: the special
territory of Jakarta Raya, Java Barat , Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, the special
territory of Yogjakarta, and Jawa Timur.


A chain of volcanic mountains run along the island from west to east.

These mountains are apart of a fold in the earth’s crust which extends from
Southeast Asian mainland through Sumatra and Java to the lesser Sundra Islands.

Java itself has 112 peaks. The volcanic soil is extremely fertile and this are
supports a large population.


Tangkuban Prahu in West Java is a live volcanoe that attraccts manu
tourists. A similar mountain in the Sunda Straights, Krakatoua, is famous for
its erruption in 1883. The whole northern portion of the peak was blown away.

The explosion was heard over 700 kilometers away. The resulting sea waves caused
over thirty six thousand Indonesian deaaths in the low lying of West and South
Jakarta.


Indonesia is a country in south east Asia that consists of more than
13,600 islands. The islands lie along the equator, and extend more than 5,000
kilometers. Many of the islands cover only a few square kilometers but about
half of New Guinea (an area called Irian Jaya), and three fourths of Borneo
(Kalimantan), also belong to Indonesia. New Guinea and Borneo are the second and
third largest islands in the world after Greenland.


Be All That You Can Be

Be All That You Can Be
Be all that you can be in the Army. Earn up to $40,000 for college, get valuable training, and have your health at risk for the rest of your life, and don’t forget the 30 days paid vacation. I know you all have heard that slogan before, or maybe you should have. That is what the Army should tell you on all of those commercials since they made it mandatory for every soldier to be vaccinated against the deadly illness, anthrax. But, if you refuse the vaccination then you are out of not only a job but also you could serve jail time. Soldiers should not be put in a position where they have to choose between risking their health or losing their job.

There are many problems with the vaccine itself. The vaccine has never undergone long term test, so even the Department of Defense has no idea what this could possibly do to soldiers down the road of life. That right there tells you that the Generals in the Pentagon don’t care about your life at all. I wonder if our friends, the leaders of our armed forces were also forced to take this vaccine.

When the vaccine first became mandatory for all personnel, I was stationed in Korea. Due to the fact that we were overseas, we had the opportunity to be the first troops to receive it. I however was exempt from taking the vaccine because I was leaving the country in the next two months and time wouldn’t allow me to receive the shots in proper order. What I witnessed my colleagues go through was enough for me to swear never to except the shots. I saw a large group of people break out in hives and actually had the opportunity to watch one soldier have a seizure. Now, the Army won’t say whether or not the seizure had anything to do with the shots but I was fairly certain.
The Anthrax vaccine was administered during the Gulf War to soldiers that went over to the Middle East to fight. Now there is an undiagnosed disease called the Gulf War disease. Many soldiers have thought to be exposed to a plethora of chemical weapons during the War. Yet only one of them has been confirmed, that being the anthrax injections they received before going over there. The anthrax vaccination could be a contributing factor to the Gulf War disease that so many soldiers still suffer from.

When the Department of Defense came up with the total military inoculation policy it was all over the news including CNN, because it was so controversial. This is very idiotic if you ask me. Don’t you think that Sadaam Hussien and all of the other small threats to the United States watch CNN? Those small countries can afford many different kinds and large quantities of chemical weapons due to their low cost. They are no longer going to even bother launching an anthrax missile at our troops because they know they have a chance at surviving. They will just shoot some other disease filled rocket that they are certain we cannot defend against.

When one joins the military there are a number of reasons that could be possible. There is education benefits, training, money, family traditions, and first and foremost, to serve their country. I don’t think that anyone would join the military so they could endanger their own health. Sure there is always that knowledge that some day you may be called upon to go to combat, but injuring your health during peacetime is not heroic.
If you die while in combat you will most likely be decorated with all kinds of metals and awards for bravery. The only thing that you will get for becoming unhealthy during peacetime is a look at the inside of a VA hospital and poor treatment. You will probably hear every excuse in the world why you are sick all the time, but you will never hear once that it is linked to the shots you were forced to take while you were in the military.

It is the individuals’ responsibility to be aware of their surroundings. Before some one consumes something that they have never seen before don’t they normally say, “What is that”? Before you take any vaccine you should ask yourself what it is and do the necessary research to find out what it actually is. I am not saying that you will ever come across something so exotic as anthrax, but you should question everything and go with you gut.

Following orders only for the reason that someone told you to is ridiculous. You wouldn’t hit yourself in the head with a hammer just because some one told you to, so don’t inflict any harm on yourself unless you are certain it is your only alternative.

The Synthesis and Characterization of Ferrocene

A Modern Iterative Approach to a Classical Organometallic Laboratory Experiment
Pamela S. Tanner, Gennady Dantsin, Stephen M. Gross, Alistair J. Lees,
Clifford E. Myers, M. Stanley Whittingham and Wayne E. Jones, Jr. 1
State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902
(Funded by the National Science Foundation)
(Submitted to J. Chemical Education)
——————————————————————————–
Since ferrocene is credited with the rapid acceleration of modern organotransition metal chemistry (1,2) and the cyclopentadienyl group is extensively used as a stabilizing ligand, it is only fitting that the synthesis of ferrocene be incorporated into an advanced undergraduate inorganic laboratory. In our four credit course, the students work in pairs and have the opportunity to select six experiments from a total of nine. Three of these experiments must be selected from the area of materials chemistry and the topics include the synthesis of anhydrous CrCl3, a high temperature superconductor, the ZSM-5 zeolite and the lithium intercalation of WO3. Three wet experiments are also selected. These include the synthesis of W(CO)4, metal complexes of DMSO, a tris(bipyridyl)ruthenium complex, ferrocene, and the acetylation of ferrocene. If ferrocene is selected, it must be done in conjunction with the acetylation of ferrocene and these labs make up two of the three wet labs that are done by the student. Each lab incorporates an open ended question that the student may answer with the aid of library research or CAChe molecular modeling software with the Project Leader extension. This iterative approach builds confidence in the students ability to explore the unknown and reinforces the basic idea of the scientific method.


The ferrocene synthesis has been an extremely successful and popular selection. The students enjoy the diverse technical skills acquired during this experiment. These are techniques that a student may not be introduced to again as an undergraduate and include the use of air-less glassware while working on a vacuum line, cyclic voltammetry, bulk electrolysis, thin-layer and column chromatography. In addition, the compounds are characterized by standard methods such as melting point determination, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopies.
——————————————————————————–
Experiments
Preparation of Ferrocene
Ferrocene is synthesized with a modification of the preparation reported by Jolly (3). The yield in the reported synthesis was 93% (3). Cyclopentadiene undergoes a 4+2 cycloaddition to form dicyclopentadiene. For this reason, cyclopentadiene is usually purified before use. Dicyclopentadiene boils at 170C and cyclopentadiene boils at 42.5 C. For efficiency, the dicyclopentadiene dimer is thermally cracked using a fractional distillation apparatus in advance by the teaching assistant. While this is usually done on the day of the experiment, we have found that cyclopentadiene may be stored without significant dimerization in a foil covered container in a freezer for several days. At the beginning of the lab period, the students grind KOH in a mortar and quickly transfer it to a tared vial. KOH is hygroscopic and should be ground in small portions (2 g). A nitrogen glove bag is a worthwhile investment for this step in the procedure. In addition to protecting the students from the corrosive KOH, it ensures that the KOH is dry. The FeCl2.4H20 will also go into solution more effectively if it is finely ground. It is then placed in a tared vial.
The pre-weighed KOH (15 g) is placed in a 100 mL (14/20) three-neck round bottom flask equipped with a magnetic stirring bar.
1,2-Dimethoxyethane (30 mL) is added with stirring to the KOH. One side of the neck is stoppered and the other is connected to a vacuum line through a gas adapter. While the mixture is slowly stirred and the flask is being purged with a stream of nitrogen, the cyclopentadiene (2.75 mL) is added. The resulting solution is rose colored. The main neck is then fitted with a pressure equalizing dropping funnel (25 mL) with its stopcock open. In a second one neck round bottom flask that is fitted with a septum, FeCl2.4H20 (3.25 g) and DMSO (12.5 mL) are stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere to dissolve the FeCl2.4H20.
After about five minutes, the stopcock is closed and the FeCl2 solution is added to the pressure equalizing dropping funnel. The reaction mixture in the three-neck flask is stirred vigorously and the purging with nitrogen is continued. After about ten minutes, the stopper is placed on the dropping funnel, the nitrogen flow is reduced and drop-by-drop addition of the FeCl2 solution is begun. The rate of addition is adjusted so that the entire solution is added in 30 minutes. Then the dropping funnel stopcock is closed and vigorous stirring of the dark green solution is continued for an additional 30 minutes. Finally, the nitrogen flow is stopped and the mixture is added to a mixture of 6M HCl (45 mL) and crushed ice (50 g). Some of the resulting slurry may be used to rinse the reaction flask to maximize the product yield. The slurry is stirred for about 15 minutes and the orange precipitate is collected on a Buchner or Hirsch funnel and washed with four 5-mL portions of water. The moist solid is spread out on a large watch glass and dried in the air. The compound is then purified through sublimation in a large glass petri dish that is placed on a warm hot plate (100 C). Care is used to avoid charring the ferrocene. The purified ferrocene is then characterized by melting point determination, UV-Vis and IR spectroscopies, and cyclic voltammetry. We are incorporating a bulk electrolysis to generate the ferrocenium cation.
Preparation of Acetylferrocene
Acetylferrocene is synthesized under mild conditions with a modification of the procedure reported by Bozak (4). The students are supplied with ferrocene during the second laboratory period so that the acetylation of ferrocene may take place concurrently with the purification of ferrocene. This encourages students to develop multi-tasking skills.
A mixture of ferrocene (1.5 g) and acetic anhydride (5 mL) is prepared in a small Erlenmeyer flask. To this mixture, 85% H3PO4 (1 mL) is added dropwise with constant stirring. This addition is exothermic and is accompanied by a change in color. Following the addition of the phosphoric acid, the Erlenmeyer flask is fitted with a CaCl2 drying tube. The dark green solution is then heated in a beaker of water on a hot plate for ten minutes (50 C). During this time, the solution becomes rose colored. The mixture is then poured over ice (20 g) into a large beaker that will accommodate the gas (CO2) formed during the NaHCO3 neutralization. Water is used to rinse the reaction flask and maximize the product yield. When the ice has melted, small quantities of sodium bicarbonate are added until gas evolution stops. The pH may be tested with pH paper to insure that neutrality is achieved. This is followed by cooling the resulting orange solution in an ice bath for 30 minutes during which time a brown precipitate forms. This precipitate is collected by suction filtration using a coarse fritted funnel. The dark brown solid is then washed with distilled water to remove impurities until it is pale orange in color. It is then dried in air for 15 minutes.
Thin layer chromatography is used to optimize the conditions for column chromatography of acetylferrocene. TLC plates (silica gel) are provided for student use. Alternatively, microscope slides may be used as TLC plates by applying a slurry that consists of silica gel (40 g) and chloroform (100 mL). A small amount of the crude acetylferrocene, which is a mono- and diacetylferrocene/ferrocene mixture, is dissolved in a vial in toluene (2-3 drops). A small amount of ferrocene is also dissolved in a separate vial in toluene. A line is penciled on each slide approximately 1 cm from the bottom of the TLC plate. The plates are spotted using a fine capillary applicator approximately on the pencil line. Each plate will contain two spots, one is ferrocene and one is crude acetylferrocene. The spots are allowed to air dry and then a second spot is applied at the same location to obtain a concentrated area of compound. The identity of the spot is indicated with a pencil mark. The plates are individually placed with the spotted end in the solvent in five developing chambers. The chambers contain the following solutions: petroleum ether, toluene, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate and a mixture of 10% ethyl acetate and 90% petroleum ether. The pencil mark should be above the solvent level. The solvent containers are covered while the plates are developing. The plates are removed when the solvent front has traveled approximately 3/4 of the distance of the plate. The plates are air dried. The TLC plates may be developed in an iodine chamber. This will result in brown spots that can be marked and identified so that the plates may be included in a laboratory report. The solutions that provide maximum separation of the two components are chosen as column chromatography solutions. For instance, ferrocene may elute with toluene while the acetylferrocene remains on the column and is then eluted with a toluene/ethyl acetate mixture. The color of the spots is helpful to discern the individual bands that elute from the column. The crude acetylferrocene is dissolved in the solution that is selected to elute the first component.
The column is assembled by placing a small piece of glass wool into the bottom of the column (50 mL buret). The glass wool is then covered with a small amount of sand and the buret is filled with the solvent that was chosen to dissolve the crude mixture. A powder funnel is used to slowly fill the column with dry silica gel to a height of approximately 30 cm. The column is never allowed to dry. Alternately, the column may be prepared by the traditional slurry method. A small amount of silica gel may be added to the crude acetylferrocene solution to make a slurry that is then added to the top of the column and covered with a small amount of sand. The two solutions (or mixtures) are then used to purify the crude acetylferrocene. The ferrocene band is discarded and the solvent is removed from the acetylferrocene band by rotary evaporation. It may then be recrystallized from chloroform. The acetylferrocene is characterized by melting point determination, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopies, and cyclic voltammetry.
——————————————————————————–
Discussion
The experimental procedure for the synthesis of ferrocene provided above was adopted after several failed attempts to incorporate newer microscale techniques that utilize ethylene glycol (5) as the solvent rather than 1,2-dimethoxyethane. When ethylene glycol was used, an extremely viscous reaction mixture resulted that was incapable of being stirred effectively in the micro-glassware. Our success rate with the revised preparation is 100%.
Our advanced undergraduate inorganic lab is taught in the semester format with two three-hour weekly classes. The students learn to multi-task to accomplish their lab responsibilities efficiently. We have provided the following suggested format (Table 1) to accomplish the synthesis and characterization of ferrocene and acetylferrocene in two and a half weeks. This format is not provided to the students. They are innovative and are required to submit their own schedules before beginning work. The format allows instructors and teaching assistants to flexibility in the method of ensuring that the students use their time efficiently.
——————————————————————————–
Table 1. Suggested Time Management Schedule Day Program
1 Synthesis of Cp2Fe; teaching assistant to provide cyclopentadiene
2 Sublimation of Cp2Fe; students are given Cp2Fe to perform the acetylation
3 Thin layer and column chromatography of acetylferrocene followed by rotary evaporation; begin characterization of Cp2Fe (melting point, UV-Vis, IR)
4 Characterization of acetylferrocene (melting point, UV-Vis, IR); CAChe modeling
5 Finish characterization including cyclic voltammetry and bulk electrolysis
——————————————————————————–
Crude ferrocene and acetylferrocene were synthesized in 51-79% and 27-58% yield respectively. An experimental melting point range of 169-171 C was obtained for ferrocene. The reported melting point range is 173-174 C (3). For acetylferrocene, the experimental melting point range was 80-83 C as compared with the reported range of 81-83 C (7). Infrared spectroscopy was performed by the students on ferrocene and acetylferrocene both as a KBr pellet and as a Nujol mull on NaCl plates. The infrared spectra were comparable to those reported for ferrocene (3) and acetylferrocene (8). The main difference between the spectra of ferrocene and acetylferrocene is of course the appearance of a carbonyl stretch at 1736 cm-1 that is present in the acetylferrocene and absent in the ferrocene. Some students also observed a peak at 893 cm-1 that is attributed to the monoacetylferrocene ring. They did not observe peaks that could be attributed to the 1,2-diacetylferrocene complex at 917 cm-1 or a doublet due to the 1,3-diacetylferrocene complex at 922 and 905 cm-1 (8). The experimental UV-Vis spectra of ferrocene and acetylferrocene were obtained in acetonitrile and Beers law was used to calculate the molar absorptivity. The UV spectrum for ferrocene shows maxima at 330 nm (2 = 52) and 440 nm (2 = 90), and a rising short-wavelength absorption at 225 nm (2 = 5051). This is comparable with the reported spectrum in ethanol (3). The UV spectrum for acetylferrocene shows maxima at 219 nm (2 = 2.2 x 104), 266 nm (2 = 5268) and 320 nm (2 = 1124). Except for the calculated molar absorptivity of the peak at 219 nm, this is comparable with the reported spectrum in 95% ethanol (8). The students also observed peaks assigned to ferrocene in their acetylferrocene samples.
The electrochemistry component of this laboratory was the first time that most students were exposed to cyclic voltammetry and the bulk electrolysis technique. An Amel System 5000 Potentiostat was used for all measurements. For cyclic voltammetry, the electrochemical cell was a 100 mL beaker equipped with a Ag/AgCl reference electrode (student prepared), a BAS (West Lafayette, IN) platinum-disk working electrode (2 mm diameter) and a large (1 cm2) platinum flag counter electrode. After having verified a flat background of tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (0.01 M) supporting electrolyte in acetonitrile in the range 0.0 to 1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl, cyclic voltammograms of ferrocene and acetylferrocene (approximately 3.2 x 10-3 M) were obtained at scan rates of 100 500 mV/sec. A typical cyclic voltammogram of ferrocene showed a reversible oxidation at E1/2 = +0.35 V vs. Ag/AgCl with Ep/2 = 0.057V. A typical cyclic voltammogram of acetylferrocene also showed a reversible oxidation at E1/2 = +0.58 V vs. Ag/AgCl with Ep/2 = 0.044V. Small peaks for ferrocene were also visible in the acetylferrocene cyclic voltammogram. These results are comparable to the reported E of acetylferrocene at +0.27 V vs. the ferrocene/ferrocenium couple (6).
A second new electrochemical component that was recently introduced into this laboratory is the bulk electrolysis of ferrocene to ferrocenium. The electrochemical cell was a 100 mL beaker equipped with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode (student prepared), a BAS (West Lafayette, IN) reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) working electrode and an extremely large platinum flag counter electrode. After having verified a flat background of tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate (0.01 M) supporting electrolyte in acetonitrile in the range 0.0 to 1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the bulk electrolysis of ferrocene (approximately 7.5 x 10-4 M) was achieved on several occasions. As expected, a new peak in the UV-Vis was observed at 620 nm and the solution changed color from orange to blue. Unfortunately to date, these experimental conditions are not reproducible.
As a supplement to their standard chemical characterization, students used the CAChe molecular modeling program to build a ferrocene molecule in both the eclipsed and staggered conformations and to remove an electron to obtain information about the ferrocenium cation. The results of this modeling were then discussed in relation to their experimental observations.
When the students have synthesized and derivatized ferrocene, they have an experimental background for comparison of the unsubstituted ferrocene versus the acetylated ferrocene. They also have a clear understanding of the potential R groups that are chemically practical. This is especially meaningful if the student has completed organic chemistry and is able to relate the familiar benzene substituents with the ferrocene molecule. We have found that if a student proceeds through the iterative question before understanding the acetylation experiment, they design strange, wondrous and impractical molecules with the aid of the CAChe system. It must be stressed that molecular modeling is only a tool. The input is influenced to a large degree by the understanding of the operator which may be enhanced with guidance from the instructor.
A natural progression at the completion of the two syntheses is the introduction of the iterative question. Students are asked to design a ferrocene with specific properties such as a different colored ferrocene. This question is answered with the aid of CAChe modeling where electronic spectra of the gas phase ferrocene and the substituted ferrocene may be generated by ZINDO (Zerners Intermediate Neglect of Differential Overlap). A more comprehensive iterative project involves both library work and molecular modeling. The students are asked to find the preparation of a substituted ferrocene in the library. They may also design a synthesis and confirm the synthesis with the aid of library references. They then model the complex and predict its spectroscopic characteristics based upon what they are able to calculate from the molecular model and their knowledge of general chemical trends.
Since the students became familiar with cyclic voltammetry, one trend of interest involves the ionization potential of the substituted ferrocenes. One student project involved a comparison of several known substituted ferrocenes (6) and their gas phase models (Figure 1 and Table 2). The gas phase models were used since the expected solvent dependence has not been observed using the CAChe system due to initial limitations with project leader. The initial calculated ionization potentials were adjusted by subtracting 7.647 eV. This sets the ferrocene/ferrocenium couple at zero as is customary (6). These values and a least squares regression plot were then plotted. In general, a downward trend in the least squares regression is observed with the more easily reduced ferrocenes containing electron withdrawing substituents having positive ionization potentials. Conversely, the more easily oxidized ferrocenes with electron donating substituents are calculated with negative ionization potentials. Deviations from experimental data may be accounted for since the student was comparing gas phase ferrocene models and acetonitrile ferrocene electrochemistry (6).
——————————————————————————–
Fig. 1. Student CAChe Project
——————————————————————————–
Table 2 Student CAChe Project
——————————————————————————–
Conclusion
The incorporation of an iterative question into each of our advanced inorganic undergraduate laboratories has allowed students to plumb the depths of their chemical knowledge and to acquire new tools that improve their use of the scientific method. The students enjoy the high success rate of the ferrocene/acetylferrocene lab. They also appreciate the chance to acquire new synthetic techniques such as the use of Schlenk techniques. In addition, the use of novel instrumental analysis such as electrochemistry is beneficial to their overall undergraduate education. They seem to thrive on the diverse exposure and the opportunity to stretch themselves. This allows them to become excited about chemistry and like the experiment that they are conducting, they come full circle and view chemistry in a new light as a useful, valuable tool. The addition of the iterative question to a classical laboratory can therefore provide an additional richness to the traditional wet chemistry.
——————————————————————————–
Acknowledgments
Research supported by NSF under Grants # DUE-9452023 and DUE-9452131.
——————————————————————————–
Literature Cited
1. Kauffman, George B. J. Chem. Educ. 1983, 60, 185.

2. Kealy, T. J.; Pauson, P. L. Nature 1951, 168, 1039.

3. Jolly, W. L., The Synthesis and Characterization of Inorganic Compounds, Prentice-Hall: New Jersey, 1970.

4. Bozak, R. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1966, 43, 73.

5. Szafran, Z.; Pike, R. M.; Singh, M. M., Microscale Inorganic Chemistry, Wiley: New York, 1991.

6. Geiger, William E. J. Organomet. Chem. 1990, 22, 142.

7. Wade, Leroy G. J. Chem. Educ. 1978, 55, 208.

8. Rosenblum, Myron, Chemistry of the Iron Group Metallocenes: Ferrocene, Ruthenocene, Osmocene Part One, Interscience Publishers: New York, 1965.

Washington Square

I’m depressed. Well, how could I not be? I just finished reading Washington
Square. I’m happy it’s over, but I’m not happy I finished it. No, that doesn’t make sense
does it? Lets just say, I had a feeling how it was going to end up; I just hoped that I
would be wrong. Unfortunately the one time I didn’t want to be right I was. Isn’t that
the way it always works? I guess so.
Catherine, dear plain old, Catherine. Poor girl, father thinks she’s plain, she
thinks she’s plain, her aunt thinks she’s plain, even the man who she thinks loves her
thinks she’s plain. Although James erases this thought in the beginning of the book I still
believe it, “plain” equals “ugly”. I feel so bad for her but I guess you had to have what
happened to her happen, or else we wouldn’t have such a depressing story. I tell you
though, I’m glad my daddy isn’t rich or I would swear off guys as well. I felt so horrible
when I knew before her what Morris was like.

Which brings me to Morris Townsend. He’s a rat, I smelt a rat from the
beginning but I figured it was just because for me guys for the most part are always rats.
But of course he was after her money, she was “plain” and her father was “rich” no her
father wasn’t “rich”. By god he was rich. So Catherine’s got a big dowry, lots of money,
but she’s “plain”. Oh, well the money will compensate. This shows you the kind of man
he is. Well at least it erases the theory that women are gold diggers.

James makes the reader dislike Catherine’s father. He makes him seem like an
insensitive uncaring prick, but I really don’t think he is. Yes I know parents are supposed
to think that their child is the most beautiful thing in the world but hey, that theory’s over
rated. It’s not that he didn’t love his daughter; he just knew the truth. He was realistic
about the entire idea of this strikingly handsome man falling head over heals in love with
his daughter who isn’t the greatest looking chick in the world. Something doesn’t quite
fit. But it’s a known fact that children never believe what their parents say. Who trusts
the person who’s had more experience in life? Where would the sense be in that?
Although he had a funny way of showing it, Catherine’s father truly cared for her. Well
we’ve already established that she’s not going to listen to his better judgment, but still, it
didn’t help that she had an aunt who believed in Cinderella and Prince Charming fairy
tales.

Her aunt is a quack. James doesn’t go so far as to say this much but that’s what
she is. She believes that everyone will find love. All she’s trying to do is live vicariously
through her niece. Her father says, “All he wants is your money” she says, “no he wants
your heart” and all that other mushy stuff. Her father really is a smart man. He knew
from the start that his sister was going to cause this kind of trouble. He was right. It’s
hard enough that she’s in love with a scumbag, but she’s got one saying he’s rotten and
the other saying he’s perfect. Instead of ending up alone at the end she should’ve ended
in an asylum. Hell, I know that would drive me crazy.
Hmm lets see . . .who’s got the problem. Catherine maybe? Yes I think I’ll go
with Catherine. Catherine is torn between the cultural forces that would have her marry
into “elite” society, when she’s in love with someone she can never have-in this case a
handsome young man who wants her only for her money. Of course she doesn’t know
this yet but she will. The poor girl. Her father forbids her to marry Morris. Having a
father disapprove of the man you love is a hard thing. Still loving the man your father
disapproves of is even harder. Then later finding out that the man you’d been fighting for
wouldn’t have done the same for you is devastating. Catherine knows she’s right, that
Morris loves her. She knows this all the way up until the point where she finds out he
doesn’t. (Well, that would be logical wouldn’t it?) But to solve the problem of being
forbidden to marry, she merely stays unwed until her father’s death. When Morris shows
up ten years later and then decides to try to wed her for her money, she’s got a new
problem. She’s realized who he really is. So she rejects him and condemns herself to
live alone rather than compromise to the crooked social order of both men and women
that has limited her whole life.
Now it’s just a hunch, but I honestly think she dies a virgin and without knowing
the feeling of being loved. Now can you see why this book is just depressing? I’m so
glad it’s over and I’m so glad this reports over too. So I don’t have to talk about this
depressing story any longer. I have a feeling her aunt wouldn’t liked this story very
much. I mean where’s the glass slipper?
Book Reports

Tropical Rainforests

IS 490
SPECIAL TOPICS
Computer Graphics
May 6, 1996
Table of Contents
Introduction
3
How It Was
3
How It All Began
4
Times Were Changing6
Industry””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s First Attempts
7
The Second Wave10
How the Magic is Made11
Modeling
12
Animation
13
Rendering
13
Conclusion
15
Bibliography
16
Introduction
Hollywood has gone digital, and the old ways of doing things are dying.
Animation and
special effects created with computers have been embraced by television
networks,
advertisers, and movie studios alike. Film editors, who for decades
worked by painstakingly
cutting and gluing film segments together, are now sitting in front of
computer screens.
There, they edit entire features while adding sound that is not only
stored digitally, but
also has been created and manipulated with computers. Viewers are
witnessing the results of
all this in the form of stories and experiences that they never dreamed
of before. Perhaps
the most surprising aspect of all this, however, is that the entire
digital effects and
animation industry is still in its infancy. The future looks bright.


How It Was
In the beginning, computer graphics were as cumbersome and as hard to
control as dinosaurs
must have been in their own time. Like dinosaurs, the hardware systems,
or muscles, of
early computer graphics were huge and ungainly. The machines often
filled entire buildings.


Also like dinosaurs, the software programs or brains of computer
graphics were hopelessly
underdeveloped. Fortunately for the visual arts, the evolution of both
brains and brawn of
computer graphics did not take eons to develop. It has, instead, taken
only three decades
to move from science fiction to current technological trends. With
computers out of the
stone age, we have moved into the leading edge of the silicon era.


Imagine sitting at a
computer without any visual feedback on a monitor. There would be no
spreadsheets, no word
processors, not even simple games like solitaire. This is what it was
like in the early
days of computers. The only way to interact with a computer at that
time was through toggle
switches, flashing lights, punchcards, and Teletype printouts. How It
All Began
In 1962, all this began to change. In that year, Ivan Sutherland, a
Ph.D. student at (MIT),
created the science of computer graphics. For his dissertation, he
wrote a program called
Sketchpad that allowed him to draw lines of light directly on a cathode
ray tube (CRT). The
results were simple and primitive. They were a cube, a series of lines,
and groups of
geometric shapes. This offered an entirely new vision on how computers
could be used. In
1964, Sutherland teamed up with Dr. David Evans at the University of
Utah to develop the
world””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s first academic computer graphics department. Their goal was to
attract only the most
gifted students from across the country by creating a unique department
that combined hard
science with the creative arts. They new they were starting a brand new
industry and wanted
people who would be able to lead that industry out of its infancy. Out
of this unique mix of
science and art, a basic understanding of computer graphics began to
grow. Algorithms for
the creation of solid objects, their modeling, lighting, and shading
were developed. This
is the roots virtually every aspect of today””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s computer graphics
industry is based on.
Everything from desktop publishing to virtual reality find their
beginnings in the basic
research that came out of the University of Utah in the 60””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s and 70””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s.


During this time,
Evans and Sutherland also founded the first computer graphics company.


Aptly named Evans &
Sutherland (E&S), the company was established in 1968 and rolled out its
first computer
graphics systems in 1969. Up until this time, the only computers
available that could
create pictures were custom-designed for the military and prohibitively
expensive. E&S””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s
computer system could draw wireframe images extremely rapidly, and was
the first commercial
“workstation” created for computer-aided design (CAD). It found its
earliest customers in
both the automotive and aerospace industries. Times Were Changing
Throughout its early years, the University of Utah””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s Computer Science
Department was
generously supported by a series of research grants from the Department
of Defense. The
1970””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s, with its anti-war and anti-military protests, brought increasing
restriction to the
flows of academic grants, which had a direct impact on the Utah
department””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s ability to
carry out research. Fortunately, as the program wound down, Dr.


Alexander Schure, founder
and president of New York Institute of Technology (NYIT), stepped
forward with his dream of
creating computer-animated feature films. To accomplish this task,
Schure hired Edwin
Catmull, a University of Utah Ph.D., to head the NYIT computer graphics
lab and then
equipped the lab with the best computer graphics hardware available at
that time. When
completed, the lab boasted over $2 million worth of equipment. Many of
the staff came from
the University of Utah and were given free reign to develop both two-
and three-dimensional
computer graphics tools. Their goal was to soon produce a full -length
computer animated
feature film. The effort, which began in 1973, produced dozens of
research papers and
hundreds of new discoveries, but in the end, it was far too early for
such a complex
undertaking. The computers of that time were simply too expensive and
too under powered, and
the software not nearly developed enough. In fact, the first full
length computer generated
feature film was not to be completed until recently in 1995. By 1978,
Schure could no longer
justify funding such an expensive effort, and the lab””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s funding was cut
back. The ironic
thing is that had the Institute decided to patent many more of its
researcher””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s discoveries
than it did, it would control much of the technology in use today.


Fortunately for the
computer industry as a whole, however, this did not happen. Instead,
research was made
available to whomever could make good use of it, thus accelerating the
technologies
development. Industry””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s First Attempts
As NYIT””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s influence started to wane, the first wave of commercial
computer graphics studios
began to appear. Film visionary George Lucas (creator of Star Wars and
Indiana Jones
trilogies) hired Catmull from NYIT in 1978 to start the Lucasfilm
Computer Development
Division, and a group of over half-dozen computer graphics studios
around the country opened
for business. While Lucas””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s computer division began researching how to
apply digital
technology to filmmaking, the other studios began creating flying logos
and broadcast
graphics for various corporations including TRW, Gillette, the National
Football League, and
television programs, such as “The NBC Nightly News” and “ABC World News
Tonight.” Although
it was a dream of these initial computer graphics companies to make
movies with their
computers, virtually all the early commercial computer graphics were
created for television.


It was and still is easier and far more profitable to create graphics
for television
commercials than for film. A typical frame of film requires many more
computer calculations
than a similar image created for television, while the per-second film
budget is perhaps
about one-third as much income. The actual wake-up call to the
entertainment industry was
not to come until much later in 1982 with the release of Star-Trek II:
The Wrath of Kahn.


That movie contained a monumental sixty seconds of the most exciting
full-color computer
graphics yet seen. Called the “Genesis Effect,” the sequence starts out
with a view of a
dead planet hanging lifeless in space. The camera follows a missiles
trail into the planet
that is hit with the Genesis Torpedo. Flames arc outwards and race
across the surface of
the planet. The camera zooms in and follows the planets transformation
from molten lava to
cool blues of oceans and mountains shooting out of the ground. The
final scene spirals the
camera back out into space, revealing the cloud-covered newly born
planet. These sixty
seconds may sound uneventful in light of current digital effects, but
this remarkable scene
represents many firsts. It required the development of several
radically new computer
graphics algorithms, including one for creating convincing computer fire
and another to
produce realistic mountains and shorelines from fractal equations. This
was all created by
the team at Lucasfilm””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s Computer Division. In addition, this sequence
was the first time
computer graphics were used as the center of attention, instead of being
used merely as a
prop to support other action. No one in the entertainment industry had
seen anything like
it, and it unleashed a flood of queries from Hollywood directors seeking
to find out both
how it was done and whether an entire film could be created in this
fashion. Unfortunately,
with the release of TRON later that same year and The Last Starfighter
in 1984, the answer
was still a decided no.


Both of these films were touted as a technological tour-de-force,
which, in fact, they
were. The films”””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””” graphics were extremely well executed, the best seen
up to that point, but
they could not save the film from a weak script. Unfortunately, the
technology was greatly
oversold during the film””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s promotion and so in the end it was
technology that was blamed
for the film””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s failure. With the 1980s came the age of personal
computers and dedicated
workstations. Workstations are minicomputers that were cheap enough to
buy for one person.


Smaller was better, aster, an much, much cheaper. Advances in silicon
chip technologies
brought massive and very rapid increases in power to smaller computers
along with drastic
price reductions. The costs of commercial graphics plunged to match,
to the point where
the major studios suddenly could no longer cover the mountains of debt
coming due on their
overpriced centralized mainframe hardware.
With their expenses mounting, and without the extra capital to upgrade
to the newer cheaper
computers, virtually every independent computer graphics studio went out
of business by
1987. All of them, that is, except PDI, which went on to become the
largest commercial
computer graphics house in the business and to serve as a model for the
next wave of
studios. The Second Wave
Burned twice by TRON and The Last Starfighter, and frightened by the
financial failure of
virtually the entire industry, Hollywood steered clear of computer
graphics for several
years. Behind the scenes, however, it was building back and waiting for
the next big break.


The break materialized in the form of a watery creation for the James
Cameron 1989 film,
The Abyss. For this film, the group at George Lucas”””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””” Industrial Light
and Magic (ILM)
created the first completely computer-generated entirely organic
looking and thoroughly
believable creature to be realistically integrated with live action
footage and characters.


This was the watery pseudopod that snaked its way into the underwater
research lab to get a
closer look at its human inhabitants. In this stunning effect, ILM
overcame two very
difficult problems: producing a soft-edged, bulgy, and irregular shaped
object, and
convincingly anchoring that object in a live-action sequence. Just as
the 1982 Genesis
sequence served as a wake-up call for early film computer graphics,
this sequence for The
Abyss was the announcement that computer graphics had finally come of
age. A massive
outpouring of computer-generated film graphics has since ensued with
studios from across
the entire spectrum participating in the action. From that point on,
digital technology
spread so rapidly that the movies using digital effects have become too
numerous to list in
entirety. However they include the likes of Total Recall, Toys,
Terminator 2: Judgment
Day, The Babe, In the Line of Fire, Death Becomes Her, and of course,
Jurassic Park.


How the Magic is Made
Creating computer graphics is essentially about three things: Modeling,
Animation, and
Rendering. Modeling is the process by which 3-dimensional objects are
built inside the
computer; animation is about making those objects come to life with
movement, and rendering
is about giving them their ultimate appearance and looks.


Hardware is the brains and brawn of computer graphics, but it is
powerless without the
right software. It is the software that allows the modeler to build a
computer graphic
object, that helps the animator bring this object to life, and that, in
the end, gives the
image its final look. Sophisticated computer graphics software for
commercial studios is
either purchased for $30,000 to $50,000, or developed in-house by
computer programmers.
Most studios use a combination of both, developing new software to meet
new project needs.


Modeling
Modeling is the first step in creating any 3D computer graphics.


Modeling in computer
graphics is a little like sculpting, a little like building models with
wood, plastic and
glue, and a lot like CAD. Its flexibility and potential are unmatched in
any other art form.


With computer graphics it is possible to build entire worlds and
entire realities. Each
can have its own laws, its own looks, and its own scale of time and
space.
Access to these 3-dimensional computer realities is almost always
through the 2-dimensional
window of a computer monitor. This can lead to the misunderstanding
that 3-D modeling is
merely the production perspective drawings. This is very far from the
truth. All elements
created during any modeling session possess three full dimensions and
at any time can be
rotated, turned upside down, and viewed from any angle or perspective.
In addition, they
may be re-scaled, reshaped, or resized whenever the modeler chooses.


Modeling is the first
step in creating any 3-dimensional computer animation. It requires the
artist””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s ability to
visualize mentally the objects being built, and the craftsperson””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s
painstaking attention to
detail to bring it to completion. To create an object, a modeler starts
with a blank screen
an sets the scale of the computer””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s coordinate system for that element.


The scale can be
anything from microns to light years across in size. It is important
that scale stays
consistent with all elements in a project. A chair built in inches will
be lost in a living
room built in miles. The model is then created by building up layers of
lines and patches
that define the shape of the object.


Animation
While it is the modeler that contains the power of creation, it is the
animator who
provides the illusion of life. The animator uses the tools at his
disposal to make objects
move. Every animation process begins essentially the same way, with a
storyboard.
A storyboard is a series of still images that shows how the elements
will move and interact
with each other. This process is essential so that the animator knows
what movements need
to be assigned to objects in the animation. Using the storyboard, the
animator sets up key
points of movements for each object in the scene. The computer then
produces motion for
each object on a frame by frame basis. The final result when assembled,
gives the form of
fluid movement. Rendering
The modeler gives form, the animator provides motion, but still the
animation process is not
complete. The objects and elements are nothing but empty or hollow
forms without any
surface. They are merely outlines until the rendering process is
applied. Rendering is the
most computational time demanding aspect of the entire animation
process. During the
rendering process, the computer does virtually all the work using
software that has been
purchased or written in-house. It is here that the animation finally
achieves its final
look. Objects are given surfaces that make it look like a solid form.
Any type of look can
be achieved by varying the looks of the surfaces. The objects finally
look concrete. Next,
the objects are lighted. The look of the lighting is affected by the
surfaces of the
objects, the types of lights, and the mathematical models used to
calculate the behavior of
light. Once the lighting is completed, it is now time to create what the
camera will see.
The computer calculates what the camera can see following the designs of
the objects in the
scene. Keep in mind that all the objects have tops, sides, bottoms, and
possibly insides.


Types of camera lens, fog, smoke, and other effects all have to be
calculated. To create
the final 2-D image, the computer scans the resulting 3D world and pulls
out the pixels that
the camera can see. The image is then sent to the monitor, to
videotape, or to a film
recorder for display. The multiple 2D still frames, when all assembled,
produce the final
animation.


Conclusion
Much has happened in the commercial computer graphics industry since the
decline of the
first wave of studios and the rise of the second. Software and hardware
costs have
plummeted. The number of well-trained animators and programmers has
increased dramatically.


And at last, Hollywood and the advertising community have acknowledged
that the digital age
has finally arrived, this time not to disappear. All these factors have
lead to an explosion
in both the size of existing studios and the number of new enterprises
opening their doors.


As the digital tide continues to rise, only one thing is certain. We
have just begun to see
how computer technology will change the visual arts.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
How Did They Do It? Computer Illusion in Film & TV , Alpha Books 1994;
Christopher W. Baker
Computer Graphics World, Volume 19, Number 3; March 1996;
Evan Hirsch, “Beyond Reality”
Computer Graphics World, Volume 19, Number 4; April 1996;
Evan Marc Hirsch, “A Changing Landscape”
Windows NT Magazine, Issue #7, March 1996;
Joel Sloss, “There””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””s No Business Like Show Business”
Cinescape, Volume 1, Number 5; February 1995;
Beth Laski, “Ocean of Dreams”

16

Hamlet In Detail

In both Hamlet and King Lear, Shakespeare incorporates a theme of madness with
two characters: one truly mad, and one only acting mad to serve a motive. The
madness of Hamlet is frequently disputed. This paper argues that the
contrapuntal character in each play, namely Ophelia in Hamlet and Edgar in King
Lear, acts as a balancing argument to the other characters madness or sanity.


King Lears more decisive distinction between Lears frailty of mind and
Edgars contrived madness works to better define the relationship between
Ophelias breakdown and Hamlets “north-north-west” brand of
insanity. Both plays offer a character on each side of sanity, but in Hamlet the
distinction is not as clear as it is in King Lear. Using the more explicit
relationship in King Lear, one finds a better understanding of the relationship
in Hamlet. While Shakespeare does not directly pit Ophelias insanity (or
breakdown) against Hamlets madness, there is instead a clear definitiveness
in Ophelias condition and a clear uncertainty in Hamlets madness.


Obviously, Hamlets character offers more evidence, while Ophelias
breakdown is quick, but more conclusive in its precision. Shakespeare offers
clear evidence pointing to Hamlets sanity beginning with the first scene of
the play. Hamlet begins with guards whose main importance in the play is to give
credibility to the ghost. If Hamlet were to see his fathers ghost in private,
the argument for his madness would greatly improve. Yet, not one, but three men
together witness the ghost before even thinking to notify Hamlet. As Horatio
says, being the only of the guards to play a significant role in the rest of the
play, “Before my God, I might not this believe / Without the sensible and
true avouch / Of mine own eyes. (I.i.56-8)” Horatio, who appears frequently
throughout the play, acts as an unquestionably sane alibi to Hamlet again when
framing the King with his reaction to the play. That Hamlet speaks to the ghost
alone detracts somewhat from its credibility, but all the men are witness to the
ghost demanding they speak alone. Horatio offers an insightful warning: What if
it tempts you toward the flood, my lord, Or to the dreadful summit of the cliff
That beetles oer his base into the sea, And there assume some other horrible
form Which might deprive your sovereignty of reason, And draw you into madness?
Think of it. (I.iv.69-74) Horatios comment may be where Hamlet gets the idea
to use a plea of insanity to work out his plan. The important fact is that the
ghost does not change form, but rather remains as the King and speaks to Hamlet
rationally. There is also good reason for the ghost not to want the guards to
know what he tells Hamlet, as the play could not proceed as it does if the
guards were to hear what Hamlet did. It is the ghost of Hamlets father who
tells him, “but howsomever thou pursues this act, / Taint not thy mind.

(I.v.84-5)” Later, when Hamlet sees the ghost again in his mothers room,
her amazement at his madness is quite convincing. Yet one must take into
consideration the careful planning of the ghosts credibility earlier in the
play. After his first meeting with the ghost, Hamlet greets his friends
cheerfully and acts as if the news is good rather than the devastation it really
is. Horatio: What news, my lord? Hamlet: O, wonderful! Horatio: Good my lord,
tell it. Hamlet: No, you will reveal it. (I.v.118-21) This is the first glimpse
of Hamlets ability and inclination to manipulate his behavior to achieve
effect. Clearly Hamlet is not feeling cheerful at this moment, but if he lets
the guards know the severity of the news, they might suspect its nature. Another
instance of Hamlets behavior manipulation is his meeting with Ophelia while
his uncle and Polonius are hiding behind a curtain. Hamlets affection for
Ophelia has already been established in I.iii., and his complete rejection of
her and what has transpired between them is clearly a hoax. Hamlet somehow
suspects the eavesdroppers, just as he guesses that Guildenstern and Rosencrantz
are sent by the King and Queen to question him and investigate the cause of his
supposed madness in II.ii. Hamlets actions in the play after meeting the
ghost lead everyone except Horatio to believe he is crazy, yet that madness is
continuously checked by an ever-present consciousness of action which never lets
him lose control. For example, Hamlet questions his conduct in his soliloquy at
the end of II.ii, but after careful consideration decides to go with his
instinct and prove to himself without a doubt the Kings guilt before
proceeding rashly. Even after the Kings guilt is proven with Horatio as
witness, Hamlet again reflects and uses his better judgement in the soliloquy at
the end of III.ii. before seeing his mother. He recognizes his passionate
feelings, but tells himself to “speak daggers to her, but use none,”
as his fathers ghost instructed. Again, when in the Kings chamber, Hamlet
could perform the murder, but decides not to in his better judgement to ensure
that he doesnt go to heaven by dying while praying. As Hamlet tells
Guildenstern in II.ii., “I am but mad north-north-west: when the wind is
southerly I know a hawk from a handsaw.” This statement reveals out-right
Hamlets intent to fool people with his odd behavior. This is after Polonius
enlightened comment earlier in the same scene, “though this be madness, yet
there is method int.” Compare the copious evidence against Hamlets
madness with the complete lack of evidence for Ophelias sanity after her
fathers murder. Her unquestionable insanity puts Hamlets very questionable
madness in a more favorable light. In IV.v. she is quite obviously mad, and
unlike Hamlet there seems to be no method to her madness. All Ophelia can do
after learning of her fathers death is sing. Indeed, Hamlets utter
rejection of her combined with this is too much for her, and she doesnt sing
a mourning song at the beginning of IV.v, but rather a happy love song. Later,
when she meets with Leartes, she says to him: Theres rosemary, thats for
remembrance; pray you, love, remember. And there is pansies, thats for
thoughts. Leartes: A document in madness, thoughts and remembrance fitted.


Thought and afflictions, passion, hell itself, She turns to favor and to
prettiness. (IV.v.179-89) While the Queen tells Leartes that an “envious
sliver” broke and flung Ophelia into the river wearing a headdress of
wild-flowers (compare the mad Lears crown of weeds), the clowns in V.i.

confirm the readers suspicion that she did not die so accidentally: Is she to
be buried in Christian burial when she willfully seeks her own salvation?
(V.i.1-2) Here lies the water; good. Here stands the man; good. If the man go to
this water and drown himself, it is, will he, nill he, he goes, mark you that.


But if the water come to him and drown him, he drowns not himself; argal, he
that is not guilty of his own death shortens not his own life. (15-20)
Ophelias breakdown into madness and inability to deal with her fathers
death and Hamlets rejection is dealt with neatly and punctually. There is
little evidence against her madness, compared to Hamlets intelligent plotting
and use of witnesses to his actions. Thus, by defining true madness in Ophelia,
Shakespeare subtracts from the plausibility of Hamlets supposed insanity.


Comparing the juxtaposition of insanity and questioned sanity in King Lear
reveals another use of this device by Shakespeare. In King Lear the lines are
drawn more distinctly between sanity and insanity, allowing a sharper contrast
between the plays two versions of madness. Edgars soliloquy in II.iii.

communicates his intent to act and dress as a mad beggar: … Whiles I may scape
I will preserve myself, and am bethought To take the basest and most poorest
shape That ever penury, in contempt of man, Brought near to beast. My face
Ill grime with filth, Blanket my loins, elf all my hairs in knots, And with
presented nakedness outface The winds and persecutions of the sky. (II.iii.5-12)
There is no question of Edgars intent here, and when they see this Bedlam
beggar in action, the audience is aware that it is Edgar and that he is not
really insane. As in Hamlet, the contrived madness is more spectacular than the
true madness. Edgar changes his voice, tears his clothes, and babbles on like a
genuine lunatic seeming in contrivance more genuine than Lear, the genuine
maniac. Just as Ophelias breakdown is believable because of her fathers
death and her rejection from Hamlet, Lears old age accounts for his frailty
of mind and rash, foolish decisions. The reader is given no motive for Lear to
tear his clothes off like a raving maniac or wear a crown of weeds and babble
like a fool other than his old age and incapability to deal with his inability
to act rationally. He realizes after being told for most of the play that he is
being a fool that perhaps his advisors are right. Only at this point, it has
long been clear to the reader that his madness is due to senility. In these two
plays, Shakespeare uses the dimmer light of reality to expose the brighter light
of contrivance. Hamlet and Edgar are dynamic, animated, and absurd in their
madness, making Lears and Ophelias true madness seem realistic rather than
absurd. Hamlet and Edgar both explicitly state the contrivance of their madness,
while Lear and Ophelia do not. Further, Hamlet and Edgar both have motive behind
leading others to believe they are insane. Although both are under severe
pressure and emotional strain due to their respective situations in each play,
they both show a remarkable amount of intelligent, conscious, and rational
decision-making in efforts to resolve their situations. In this way, they are
sharply contrasted with the mad Lear and Ophelia, whose insanity is not
questioned by themselves or other characters in either play. Neither after
displaying madness make any rational decisions that would lead the reader to
believe in their sanity. Thus, the argument that Hamlet is truly mad refutes his
ability to act rationally and discounts the dramatic device of Ophelia (as Lear
is to Edgar) as a contrapuntal example of true insanity. Hamlet one of
Shakespeare’s greatest plays, where the young prince of Denmark must uncover the
truth about his fathers death. Hamlet a play that tells the story of a young
prince who’s father recently died. Hamlets uncle Claudius marries his mother the
queen and takes the throne. As the play is told Hamlet finds out his father was
murdered by the recently crowned king. The theme that remains constant
throughout the play is appearance versus reality. Things within the play appear
to be true and honest but in reality are infested with evil. Many of the
characters within the play hide behind a mask of falseness. Four of the main
characters that hid behind this mask are Polonius, Rosencrantz (Guildenstern),
the king Cluadius. From behind this mask they give the impression of a person
who is sincere and genuine, in reality they are plagued with lies and evil.


There appearance will make it very difficult for Hamlet to uncover the truth,
the characters hide behind. Polonius the kings royal assistant has a
preoccupation with appearance. He always wants to keep up the appearance of
loving and caring person. Polonius appears like a man who loves and cares about
his son, Laertes. Polonius speaks to his son with advice that sounds sincere but
in reality it is rehearsed, hollow and without feeling. Polonius gives his
advice only to appear to be the loving caring father. The reality is he only
speaks to appear sincere as a politician, to look good rather then actually be
good: “And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. This above all: to thine
own self be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst not then
be false to any man. Farewell; my blessing season this in thee!” Act 1
Polonius gives his son Laertes his blessing to go away, he sends a spy to follow
him and keep an eye on him. This shows his lack of trust for anyone, he gives
the appearance of a confident father who trusts his son to go off on his own. In
reality he lies about his trust for his son by sending a spy to watch him. His
advice he gives his son is rehearsed and only said to give the appearance of a
loving father. Polonius further adds to the theme appearance verses reality by
ordering Ophelia to stop seeing Hamlet. He lies to her telling her that Hamlet
does not love her, he only lusts for her, in truth he does love her: Ay,
springes to catch woodcocks. I do know, When the blood burns , how prodigal the
soul Through the play Polonius hids behind his mask appearing to be honest
loving parent. In reality Polonius lies, manipulates people and eavesdrops on
peoples conversation. Polonius helps contribute to the theme appearance verses
reality by showing how his appearance is not his true nature, behind the mask
there lies someone totally different. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are two of
Hamlets childhood friends who when asked by the king, try to find out what is
troubling the young prince. Both help to contribute to the theme by showing
there appearance of being Hamlets friends. The pair go to Hamlet pretending to
be his friends when in truth they are only there because the king asked them to
find the truth. There is some irony within the twins, they are asked by the king
to find out the truth by hiding within a lie, by pretending to be his friend: A
dream is but a shadow Act II. Hamlet knows there purpose for their visit is to
dig into his soul to find the real reason for his actions as of late. As the
play continues the twins are asked again by the king to go to Hamlet and try
again to find the real reason for Hamlets behavior. Hamlet insults them at every
chance knowing they are lying to him about there purpose of the visit: Tis as
easy as lying; govern these ventages with you finger and thumb, give it breath
with your mouth…Act III As the melodrama continues Hamlet goes with the twins
to reclaim money that another state owes Denmark. Hamlet is sent by the king to
retrieve the assets. In actuality Hamlet is sent off to wither because the king,
Claudius knows that Hamlet knows too much and must be killed. The twins show
there appearance of being Hamlets friends but in truth they have a hidden reason
for visiting with Hamlet. Both show that it will be very difficult for Hamlet to
uncover the fidelity hidden within the lies. Claudius the king of Denmark
conduct in council gives him the appearance of an Honest and honorable man. In
Act one scene two Claudius in the presence of council shows his true skill and
ease of manner at speaking. Claudius speaks well of the spent king by showing a
general love for him by all his subjects. Claudius show respect for the old
sovereign by speaking kind words of him. In reality he cares little for the old
king, he speaks kindly only to give the appearance of loving brother. Though yet
of Hamlet our dear brother’s death The memory be green, and that it us befitted
To bear our hearts in grief, and our whole kingdom To be contracted in one brow
of woe Act I As Claudius sends Voltimand and Cornelius off to give the king of
Norway the message of Fortibras, he thanks and gives them complete trust, in the
deliverance of the notation. This shows his trust and caring for his subjects in
front of the council, wining even more consent from the council: We doubt it
nothing: heartily farewell. Act I Claudius increases his appearance of a honest
and honorable man, in front of the council by showing his respect for Polonius.


He gives him the power to let his son Laertes stay or leave for Norway. Claudius
speaks highly of Polonius giving him thanks and saying the he was responsible
for Claudius becoming king: The head is not more native to the heart, The hand
more instrumental to the mouth, Than is the throne of Denmark to thy father.


What woudlst thou have, Laertes (Act I ii, 47-50) This council would see this as
a man who greatly respects his subjects and cares for them. This adds to the
difficulty of uncovering the truth for Hamlet later. Hamlet enters the council
chamber and speaks with Claudius. The king (Claudius) speaks with Hamlet seeming
to be concerned with Hamlet. He gives advice that over grieveing is not healthy,
this shows a concern for Hamlets well being. This conduct of Claudius gives him
the appearance of being kind in front of council that accepts him even more for
his family values: How is it that the clouds still hang on you? Act I Claudius
appears to be even more caring when insulted by Hamlet he still shows love and
general care for Hamlet. A normal king would have become angry and Hamlet would
have gotten into trouble. Claudius shows the council that he is understanding of
Hamlet’s grief over his father: A little more than kin, and less than kind. Act
I . Claudius gives Hamlet advice that over grieveing can be harmful and not
healthy. Claudius tells Hamlet that he is a admirable person for grieveing for
so long over his dads death. Yet again Claudius keeps putting on the appearance
of the honorable man. Tis sweet and commendable in your nature, Hamlet, To give
these mourning duties to your father: But, you must know, you father lost a
father; That father lost, lost his; and the survivor bound In filial obligation
for some term To do obsequious sorrow; but to persever In obstinate condolement
is a course Act I Claudius further makes it difficult to uncover the truth by
announcing that Hamlet is next in line for the throne of Denmark. This shows
that Claudius would let Hamlet become the next king when he is gone. This
reveals a love and care for Hamlet to the council and Gertrude making Claudius
appear to be kind, loving person: You are the most immediate to our throne; And
with no less nobility of love Act I Claudius final conduct that makes him a
difficult truth to uncover, is his care and want that Hamlet remain in Denmark.


Claudius is insulted by Hamlet, he asks Hamlet to stay only that his queen
Gertrude wants Hamlet to stay. Claudius appears to be concerned with Hamlets
well being, Gertrude and council see this ,making Claudius a more deserving
person to be king. As Claudius speaks in council he gives the appearance of
someone who is a deserving person that should be king. Claudius is voted in as
king meaning he is already approved by everyone. Claudius gives respect to his
subjects giving the council the impression that he respects them. The king shows
general concern for Hamlet, his nephew. This will make it very difficult to
prove the truth about Claudius in the future for he has not only, one the love
and respect of council (that voted him in). But also has prevented a attack on
Denmark (from Fortinbras) proving that he is good king that can protect the
state from harm. Claudius makes it very difficult for Hamlet to uncover the
truth about the true nature of Claudius in the future. Through the characters
within the play all help to show the theme, that being appearance verses
reality. Polonius, Rosencrantz (Guildenstern) and the king all appear to be good
and honest. As Hamlet finds out, all contain lies and have hidden intentions
within them. As each character is presented in the play all appear to be good
and honest making it a difficult task for Hamlet to uncover the hidden truth
about the nature of each character. As Hamlet best said it somethings is rotten
in Denmark That being the lies which have replaced or covered the true state of
each character. Madness may be “mental incapacity caused by an
unmentionable injury.” Such wounds often are not easily perceived but may
be revealed in time of stress. Hamlets question, “have you a
daughter?”(Act II. Sc2 182) Polonius about the Princes emotional state.


What is hidden will surely be told to Cloudius by his adviser. Laertes search
for revenge is sharper proof that madness in degrees of publicity causes harm to
the observers. Claudius promise “no wind of blame”(Act IV, Sc.7,66)
once Laertes kills Hamlet; perhaps this is what the uncle has sought all along
for himself. Ophelia has a unique, very powerful form of madness; she seems
caught as a “bakers daughter,”(Act IV, Sc. 5, 42) between memories
of her father and Hamlet who ought have spokedn to her of events on
“Valentines day.”(Act IV, Sc 5, 48) She is doubly hexed and the
madness she has infects the whole court. Once a persons mental state has been
studied in public, there is no telling the injuries which may affect the
viewers. Ever since the death of King Hamlet young Hamlet has been what appeared
to be in a state of madness. In a discussion between Hamlet and Polonius Hamlet
questions Polonius by asking him “have you a daughter.”(Act II, Sc.2,
182) In this discussion Hamlet shows antic behavior towards Polonius by mocking
him when Hamlet would usually show great respect for him because of he age and
heis high position in the court. This sudden question to Polonius has caused
Polonius to believe that Hamlet has a form of love-sickness and that Polonius is
sure to tell Claudius of his condition. Hamlet also accuses Polonius of being
the “Jephthah, judge of Israel,”(Act II,Sc.2, 399) meaning that
Polonius would put his country in front of his daughter. Hamlet has now
convinced Polonius that he is in a state of madness because he knows that
Polonius cares for his daughter very much and would never put her second. By
convincing Polonius that he has no consideration for the well-being of others,
Hamlet is then hoping that Polonius will tell the court of his emotional
madness. Unlike Hamlet, Laertes has developed a different kind of madness, a
madness that is controlled by revenge. When Laertes is talking to Claudius,
Laertes gets so much revenge building up inside him against Hamlet that Laertes
now wants to “cut his throat.”(Act 4,Sc.7,125) Laertes behavior is
caused by the sudden death of his father who was without a due ceremony, and his
sister who has been driven mad, has contributed to the madness that is being
built up inside Laertes. This madness grows even stronger when Claudius promises
“no wind of blame”(Act IV.Sc7,66) when Laertes kills Hamlet. With
Claudius being the puppet holder and Laertes being the puppet, Claudius turns
Laertes into a savage beast to avenge for his fathers’ death; perhaps this is
what the Claudius has planned all along. Laertes has a form of madness that is
escalating because Laertes knows that he has the capabilities and motivation to
act on what he believes on. Ophelia has a unique form of madness unlike
Hamlets and Laertes because it a mixture of love and hate. An example of
hate is when she sings about a “baker’s daughter.”(Act IV,Sc.5,42)
Ophelia is referring to the way her father used to treat her before the tragic
incident of his death. A love within her madness is when she speaks about the
events on “Valentines day.”(Act IV, Sc.5,48) When Ophelia speaks
about Valentines day she is referring to the events of romance that she was
denied. Ophelias madness is brought on by her lack of being able to
demonstrate any maturity in trying to cope with her losses and in return can
only inflict her madness on the court. By stating that Hamlet could have
controlled his fraudulent madness, he then had the capability of controlling his
conscious mind into acting traditional. Where Laertes was very influential by
others and had no real control over the mental state he was developing by the
sway of Claudius. Ophelia was the most innocent victim of all because she was
the side affect of everyone elses actions and had no idea that she was
mentally disintegrating. It can be noticed that within each of these three
people there can be no reassurance on what the affect they may have on others
due to their mental state in public. Hamlet’s Sanity Hamlet appears to be
insane, after Poloniuss death, in act IV scene II. There are indications,
though, that persuade me to think other wise. Certainly, Hamlet has plenty of
reasons to be insane at this point. His day has been hectiche finally
determined Claudius had killed his father, the chance to kill Claudius
confronted him, he comes very close to convincing Gertrude that Claudius killed
his father, he accidentally kills Polonius, and finally the ghost of his father
visits him. These situations are enough to bring Hamlet to insanity, but he
remains sharp and credible. Hamlet is able to make smart remarks to Rosencrantz
and Guildenstern, comparing then to sponges, “When he (Claudius) needs what
you have gleaned, it is but squeezing you and, sponge, you shall be dry
again,” (pg 98, 20). This is random and unexpected, as many of his actions,
but the comparison makes sense; Rosencrantz and Guildenstern soak up all the
kings favors, only to become dry again after they mop up the Kings mess
(spying on Hamlet, and getting Poloniuss body). Later, with Claudius, Hamlet
tells how lowly a king can be by saying, “A man (beggar) may fish with the
worm that hath eat of a king, and eat of the fish that hath fed of that
worm,” (pg 99, 29). This also makes sense, and is not quite as random; when
Hamlet confronts Claudius, and the king asks where Polonius is, Hamlet
immediatly begins the comparison by telling Claudius that Polonuis is at supper
(the worms are eating him for supper, and so on). This proves that Hamlet had
some kind of planning for this degrading comment, and that his thoughts are not
scattered and he is able to stay focused. There is a question of what being
insane really is. Since it is agreeable that Ophelia was crazy, its possible
to use her as a guide to make this argument valid. Hamlet and Ophelia both
shared the trait of having calculated thoughts, Ophelias singing and
Hamlets verbal attacks. They also shared calmness before their deaths. But
was Hamlet spraying rude remarks to everyone before he died, as Ophelia had sung
floating down the river? No, in-fact Hamlet was the opposite of what he was
before. If he were crazy, like Ophelia, he would have remained hectic and random
up until the time of (and after) the duel. Hamlet, though, was nothe even
reasoned what death for him was, finishing his question of whether life was
worth living for. Hamlet can truley be seen to be sane, and not. The facts that
Hamlet was smart and swift thinking, and in such a reversal of emotions (from
after Polonius died) in the end, leads strongly to the opinion that Hamlet was
not insane.

Memory1

Memory is defined as the faculty by which sense impressions and information are retained in the mind and subsequently recalled. A persons capacity to remember and the total store of mentally retained impressions and knowledge also formulate memory (Webster, 1992). We all possess inside our heads a system for declassifying, storing and retrieving information that exceeds the best computer capacity, flexibility, and speed. Yet the same system is so limited and unreliable that it cannot consistently remember a nine-digit phone number long enough to dial it (Baddeley, 1993). The examination of human behavior reveals that current activities are inescapably linked by memories. General competent (Baddeley, 1993) behavior requires that certain past events have effect on the influences in the present. For example, touching a hot stove would cause a burn and therefore memory would convey a message to not repeat again. All of this is affected by the development of short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM).
Memories can be positive, like memories of girlfriends and special events, or they can be negative, such as suppressed memories. Sexual abuse of children and adolescents is known to cause severe psychological and emotional damage. Adults who were sexually abused in childhood are at a higher risk for developing a variety of psychiatric disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and mood disorders. To understand the essential issues about traumatic memory, the human minds response to a traumatic event must first be understood. The memory is made up of many different sections with each having different consequences on one another. Can people remember what they were wearing three days ago? Most likely not, because the memory only holds onto what is actively remembered. What a person was wearing is not important so it is thrown out and forgotten. This type of unimportant information passes through the short-term memory. Short-term memory is a system for storing information over brief intervals of time (Squire, 1987). Its main characteristic is the holding and understanding of limited amounts of information. The system can grasp brief ideas which would otherwise slip into oblivion, hold them, relate them and understand them for its own purpose (Squire, 1987). Another aspect of STM was introduced by William James in 1890, under the name primary memory (Baddeley, 1993). Primary memory refers to the information that forms the focus of current attention and that occupies the stream of thought. This information does not need to be brought back to mind in order to be used (Baddeley, 1993).
Compared to short-term memory, primary memory places less emphasis on time and more emphasis on the parts of attention, processing, and holding. No matter what it is called, this system is used when someone hears a telephone number and remembers it long enough to write it down (Squire, 1987). Luckily, a telephone number only consists of seven digits or else no one would be able to remember them. Most people can remember six or seven digits while others only four or five and some up to nine or ten. This is measured by a technique called the digit span, developed by a London schoolteacher, J. Jacobs, in 1887. Jacobs took subjects (people), presented them with a sequence of digits and required them to repeat the numbers back in the same order. The length of the sequence is steadily increased until a point is reached at which the subject always fails. The part at which a person is right half the time is defined as their digit span. A way to improve a digit span is through rhythm which helps to reduce the tendency to recall the numbers in the wrong order. Also, to make sure a telephone number is copied correctly, numbers can be grouped in twos and threes instead of given all at once (Baddeley, 1993). Another part of short-term memory is called chunking, used for the immediate recall of letters rather than numbers. When told to remember and repeat the letters q s v l e r c i i u k, only a person with an excellent immediate memory would be able to do so. But, if the same letters were given this way, q u i c k s i l v e r, the results would be different. What is the difference between the two sequences? The first were 11 unrelated letters, and the second were chunked into two words that make this task much easier (Baddeley, 1993) Short-term memory recall is slightly better for random numbers than for random letters, which sometimes have similar sounds. It is better for information heard rather than seen. Still, the basic principals hold true: At any given moment, we can process only a very limited amount of information” (Myers, 1995).
The next part in the memory process involves the encoding and merging of information from short-term into long-term memory. Long-term memory is understood as having three separate stages: transfer, storage, and retrieval. Once information has entered LTM, with a size that appears to be essentially unlimited, it is maintained by repetition or organization. A major part of the transfer process concerns how learned information is coded into memory. Long-term and short-term memories are thought to have different organizations. Where the STM is seen as being organized by time, LTM is organized by meaning and association categories. For example, our memory takes in Coke and Pepsi as drinks then organizes and puts them in categories such as soda. An important role in the transferring of information into long-term memory is rehearsal. The most critical aspect is the rehearsal or processing that takes place during the input time. Simple repetition, which serves only to maintain the immediate availability of an item, does little if anything to enhance subsequent recall. Active processes such as elaboration, transformation, and recoding are activities that have been found to enhance recall” (Asken, 1987). Information that is stored in LTM is stored in the same form as it was originally encoded. Major forms of storage are episodic memory and semantic memory. Episodic memory involves remembering particular incidents, such as visiting the doctor a week ago. Semantic memory concerns knowledge about the world. It holds meanings of words or any general information learned. Knowledge of the capitals of all the states would be stored in semantic memory. A Canadian psychologist, Endel Tulving discovered that there was more activity in the front of the brain when episodic memories were being retrieved, compared to more activity towards the back of the brain with semantic memory. Retrieval, the third process related to LTM, is the finding and retrieving of information from long-term storage. The cues necessary to retrieve information from memory are the same cues that were used to encode the material. For some, positive memories are recalled through music. Certain songs remind people of special times spent with friends. Couples sometimes have songs that remind them of their time spent together. Everyone has some way of remembering good times from the past.
Along with positive memories come the negative ones, which are suppressed deep in our minds. Another word for negative is traumatic, an experience beyond the range of usual human experience, (Sidran Foundation, 1994) and is brought about with intense fear, terror and helplessness. Examples include a serious threat to ones life (or that of ones children, spouse, etc.), rape, military combat, natural or accidental disasters, and torture. So how does trauma affect memory? People use their natural ability to avoid concern of a traumatic experience while the trauma is happening. This causes the memories about the traumatic events to emerge later. People with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) who have survived horrific events experience extreme recall of the event. Some people say they are haunted by memories of traumatic experiences that disrupt their daily lives. They cannot get the pictures of the trauma out of their head. This brings recurring nightmares, flashbacks, or even reliving the trauma as if it were happening now. Vietnam veterans experience this symptom because of what Memory 8 they saw and lived through. Some researchers have proven in the laboratory that ordinary or slightly stressful memories are easily distorted. However, this laboratory research on ordinary memory may be irrelevant in regard to memories of traumatic experiences. Other scientists argue that traumatic memories are different from ordinary memories in the way they are encoded in the brain. Evidence shows trauma is stored in the part of the brain called the limbic system, which processes feelings and sensory input, but not language or speech (Sidran Foundation, 1994). People who have been traumatized may live with memories of terror, though with little or no real memories to explain the feelings. Sometimes a current event may trigger long forgotten memories of earlier trauma. The triggers may be any sound or smell, like specific cologne that was worn by an attacker. Whether remembered or not, the memories are stored in the brain, and today with hypnosis, recall can bring forth what has been deeply suppressed.
The question is, does one really want to know what is not remembered? Along with memories that are recovered, come the effects that follow. Short-term memory holds every experience encountered, while long-term memory retains only what’s important. Memory is stored through episodic and semantic memory. The retrieval of decoded information occurs the same way it was encoded. Memory is affected through positive and negative emotions; some remembered others suppressed. Not only is memory used to dwell in the past, it also helps formulate the present and the future.
Bibliography:

The Hobbit: Book Review

Introduction
The book I read and analyzed was The Hobbit by J.R.R. Tolkein. I shall discuss the plot and character development, setting, authors style and my opinions about it.


Plot Development
There are too many characters in the story and so it is hard to follow and know each one of them. (There are many dwarves and its confusing.)In the beginning there is an introduction where the author tells a bit about what is a hobbit and the hobbits (Bilbo) family. It is not very complicated and the author makes it easy to understand. This introduction gives the general background, which makes the story easier to understand, for the plot and its development.


The plot development in the middle is not complicated and easy to follow. It can even be summarized in a few sentences.


The ending is expected since the author gives hints about it. As in the introduction when he says that the hobbit would gain something, this means that he will not die. Then, the reader is not kept in suspense and does not expect to see what happens at the end.
The last climax (or what is supposed to be the climax) takes a long time to occur (the last fightgood (men, elves, dwarves & eagles) vs. evil (wargs & goblins)) and this reduces its effectiveness.


After the climax there is the long return home. It is quite boring since there is nothing to expect to and the reader knows that the hobbit would get home safely. In my opinion it should have been shorter.


Character Development
The creation of the characters is done by their dialogues and monologues, actions and things noted by the narrator (the author in this case) himself. An example for dialogue: All the same, I should like it all plain and clear, also I should like to know about risks, out-of-pocket expenses… (by Bilbo, page 22, it shows that he is not ready to jump into things so quickly). An example for a monologue: Now is the time for our esteemed Mr. Baggins, who has proved himself… (by Thorin, page 210, it shows Thorins style). A good example for action is when Thorin blocked the Gate in the mountain that shows the reader that the treasure is important to Thorin and he rather die than giving it away. An example for notes by the author: You are familiar with Thorins style on important occasions… (page 210) the author talks directly to the reader and helps him understand the text.


Each character has a physical description. The length and content of the description increase as the character importance to the plot increases (e.g., the hobbit has very long descriptions in the story (especially in the introduction) and the Elvenking has fewer descriptions).
The more important characters get an emotional description too, but it is not well seen, but it can be extracted from the text by analyzing it. The example I gave before about Bilbo not rushing into things is a good example for this too.


The central figure is the hobbit, Bilbo. He is the one that makes many things occur by his mistakes and luck. The author gives long descriptions of him and refers to him a lot, he also made him save his companions life and without him the plot would not have been the same.


The supporting cast is divided into the more important characters (such as the dwarves and Gandalf) into less important and less described ones (such as the elf guards that caught the party in the woods).


It is hard to believe that the characters can exist in reality since they cannot, and they are not supposed to since it is a fantasy book.


Setting
The story occurs in the imaginary worldMiddle-earthcreated by the author, it is appropriate since creatures that are found in the book (e.g., goblins and dwarves) do not exist in our world.


Since the story happens in many places over Middle-earth the author gives a deep description only in places where important things to the plot happen but in other places he gives a more general description. Most places make the reader have a picture in his brain of them, the author uses the appropriate words and gives good descriptions.


It takes the story about a year to occur. It starts at the spring and ends in about the same time the year after. Parts of the story take place in every time of the day (and night). The mood is of fantasy world, where everything (like magic and huge treasures) can appear and happen.


Authors Style
The words used in the book are not very complicated, but there are some words that are not longer in use, or used just in poets (such as ere in some dialogues).


The style in which the dialogues are written depends on who is talking and when (e.g., when the Elvenking talked to Thorin he did not treat him with respect (because elves hated dwarves) and so did Thorin because he was offended with his captivation).


There was no suspense in the story, because of the author that destroyed it right at the beginning and with his hints all over the story, saying that the hobbit and his friends would win and get what they wanted. At the end it was clear that the good people are going to win the battle against the evil.


The plot is not very complicated and it can be summarized by one paragraph or something like this.


Critics Choice
Although I like fantasy style, I did not really like this book. The book was the worst fantasy book I ever read, although I know that the author is considered to be one of the people that gave the fantasy style a great push.


Even though the book is well written there are some faults that make it boring and uninteresting (such as the lack of suspense that I already discussed before). Comparing this book to the Dragon Lance series and especially the first, original ones, by Margaret Weis and Tracy Hickman the Dragon Lance is much better. For this book to be more interesting some changes need to be made, like dropping all the notes that the author puts in about the characters. These notes that reduced the suspense made the book very boring and I even fell asleep once reading it. If you want to read a fantasy book, you should skip this one and read a book of Margaret Weis and Tracy Hickman that are better authors.