The Olympic Games

The Olympic Games
The Olympic Games are an international sports festival that began in
ancient Greece. The original Greek games were staged every fourth year for
several hundred years, until they were abolished in the early Christian era.

The revival of the Olympic Games took place in 1896, and since then they have
been staged every fourth year, except during World War I and World War II.

Perhaps the basic difference between the ancient and modern Olympics is
that the former was the ancient Greeks’ way of saluting their gods, whereas the
modern Games are a manner of saluting the athletic talents of citizens of all
nations. The original Olympics featured competition in music, oratory, and
theater performances as well. The modern Games have a more expansive athletic
agenda, and for two and one-half weeks they are supposed to replace the rancor
of international conflict with friendly competition. In recent times, however,
that lofty ideal has not always been attained.

The earliest reliable date that recorded history gives for the first
Olympics is 776 BC, although virtually all historians presume that the Games
began well before then.

It is certain that during the midsummer of 776 BC a festival was held at
Olympia on the highly civilized eastern coast of the Peloponnesian peninsula.

That festival remained a regularly scheduled event, taking place during the pre-
Christian golden age of Greece. As a testimony to the religious nature of the
Games, which were held in honor of Zeus, the most important god in the ancient
Greek pantheon, all wars would cease during the contests. According to the
earliest records, only one athletic event was held in the ancient Olympics–a
foot race of about 183 m (200 yd), or the length of the stadium. A cook,
Coroibus of Elis, was the first recorded winner. The first few Olympics had
only local appeal and were limited to one race on one day; only men were
allowed to compete or attend. A second race–twice the length of the stadium–
was added in the 14th Olympics, and a still longer race was added to the next
competition, four years later.

When the powerful, warlike Spartans began to compete, they influenced the
agenda. The 18th Olympics included wrestling and a pentathlon consisting of
running, jumping, spear throwing, discus throwing, and wrestling. Boxing was
added at the 23rd Olympiad, and the games continued to expand, with the addition
of chariot racing and other sports. In the 37th Olympiad the format was
extended to five days of competition.

The growth of the Games fostered “professionalism” among the competitors,
and the Olympic ideals waned as royalty began to compete for personal gain,
particularly in the chariot events. Human beings were being glorified as well as
the gods; many winners erected statues to deify themselves. In AD 394 the
games were officially ended by the Roman emperor Theodosius, who felt that they
had pagan connotations.

The revival of the Olympic Games in 1896, unlike the original Games, has
a clear, concise history. Pierre de Coubertin, a young French nobleman, felt
that he could institute an educational program in France that approximated the
ancient Greek notion of a balanced development of mind and body. The Greeks
themselves had tried to revive the Olympics by holding local athletic games in
Athens during the 1800s, but without lasting success. It was Baron de
Coubertin’s determination and organizational genius, however, that gave impetus
to the modern Olympic movement. In 1892 he addressed a meeting of the Union des
Sports Athletiques in Paris. Despite meager response he persisted, and an
international sports congress eventually convened on June 16, 1894. With
delegates from Belgium, Britain, France, Greece, Italy, Russia, Spain, Sweden,
and the United States in attendance, he advocated the revival of the Olympic
Games. He found ready and unanimous support from the nine countries.

DeCoubertin had initially planned to hold the Olympic Games in France, but the
representatives convinced him that Greece was the appropriate country to host
the first modern Olympics. The council did agree that the Olympics would move
every four years to other great cities of the world.

Thirteen countries competed at the Athens Games in 1896. Nine sports were
on the agenda: cycling, fencing, gymnastics, lawn tennis, shooting, swimming,
track and field, weight lifting, and wrestling. The 14-man U. S. team dominated
the track and field events, taking first place in 9 of the 12 events. The Games
were a success, and a second Olympiad, to be held in France, was scheduled.

Olympic Games were held in 1900 and 1904, and by 1908 the number of competitors
more than quadrupled the number at Athens–from 311 to 2,082.

Beginning in 1924 a Winter Olympics was included–to be held at a separate
cold-weather sports site in the same year as the Summer Games–the first held at
Chamonix, France. In 1992 about 2,174 athletes from 63 nations competed at
Albertville, France, in a program that included Alpine and Nordic skiing,
biathlon, ice hockey, figure skating, speed skating, bobsledding, and luge. But
the Summer Games, with its wide array of events, are still the focal point of
the modern Olympics. The standard events are archery, basketball, boxing,
canoeing and kayaking, cycling, equestrian arts, fencing, field hockey,
gymnastics, handball, judo, modern pentathlon, rowing, shooting, soccer,
swimming and diving and synchronized swimming, track and field, volleyball,
water polo, weight lifting, wrestling, and yachting. The Games are governed by
the International Olympic Committee, whose headquarters is in Lausanne,

Although the Olympic Games have been increasingly politicized, the ideal of
the world’s best athletes competing against each other in the arena of so-called
pure sport has been at least partially realized, especially from the athletes’
point of view. And even though skill and courage are manifested by most Olympic
participants, the great gold medalists are the ones who are most often

This past summer the World commemorated the 100th Olympiad which was hoped
to be held in Athens in recognition of the original, Ancient Olympics. Instead
the 100th was held in Atlanta GA. Because of this fact, at least for us, we as a
country, gave the best we had to offer. This was even more a advantage when the
“home field advantage” is accounted for. And like I mentioned before the Gold
medalists are most likely remembered. It will be awhile before people forget
about Michael Johnson’s 200 and 400 gold and him crushing the 200 world record
he himself set at the trials. And who will ever forget Carl Lewis’ final
competition that ended in fitting fashion, with the gold draped around his neck.

This just goes to show that the Olympics are not just for the Athletes who
compete in it, but it is for the whole world which comes together for this short
time every 4 (well, two now) years. That is why I believe that this is a great
gift from Ancient Greece.

Of mice and men

“Apple Expands iPod Offering and Consolidates Its Strong Position”
Van Baker writes for GartnerG2, “Apple is not resting on its past success, and is defending its market dominance with refreshed versions of its iPod mini and iPod photo lines. Apple already owns 65% of the MP3 market, and will strengthen this position with a new broad range of price points and portability features.”
Down Low with High Def
The latest attraction at the world-renowned Monterey Bay Aquarium is not a rare and exotic fish, but something no less alluring: a looping, 4-minute high-definition video, rear-projected onto a special floating screen, that introduces visitors to the wonders of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.

The Authentic Voices of “500 Nations”
Bringing together a wealth of stirring stories in a powerful Discovery Channel special, W.T. Morgan unburies the authentic voices of Native American history. “Not understanding the first people of this continent is a major travesty,” he says. “The more I got into the project, the more it seemed that this is the American story.”
The Wound Healer
Dr. Stephen Harlin specializes in what most fascinated him as a student the human body’s still-mysterious capacity to heal itself. His paperless, wireless, Mac-driven office helps him devote his undivided attention to helping that process along.

February 23, 2005
New iPod mini Unveiled
The second generation iPod mini lineup features a new 4GB model priced at just $199 and a new 6GB model priced at $249. Both iPod mini models feature increased battery life of up to 18 hours, USB charging and an ultra-portable, lightweight design available in four vibrant colors.

iPod photo Lineup Updated
Updating the iPod photo lineup, Apple introduced a new slim 30GB model, holding up to 7,500 songs, for just $349 and a new 60GB model, holding up to 15,000 songs, for $449. iPod photo features a stunning high-resolution color screen for displaying photos and enhancing the entire iPod music experience. Both models hold up to 25,000 digital photos and can import photos from your digital camera via the iPod Camera Connector, arriving in March with new iPod photo software, for instant viewing and slide show playback on iPod photo.

WANTED: “New to Mac” Stories
If you’re a PC user who’s recently bought a Mac, we’d love to hear from you. Let us know what made you get a Mac instead of a PC. Did you fall in love with your iPod and then buy a Mac? Were you looking for a computer that’s more stable and secure than your old PC? What’s it feel like to go from Windows to Mac OS X? What do you use your Mac for managing your music, editing photos, creating movies, recording your own songs? What can you do on your Mac that you couldn’t do on a PC? Share your story.

Justification of Violence

Justification of Violence
Violence and the justification of it has been an issue for as long as the
world has been in existence. There are many conflicting opinions on the subject,
many in favor and many opposing the idea. I am personally split on the issue; I
believe that in some cases, violence can be justified; however, I also believe
that in others, it cannot be.

In my opinion, the only instance in which violence can be justified is
self-defense. I believe that if an innocent person is attacked for some reason
and their life is put in danger, they have the right to fight back to save
themselves. How can a person let themselves be attacked and do nothing to help
themselves survive? It’s almost unreasonable to believe that. There are plenty
of situations that fit this example. One of them is rape. If a woman is being
attacked and sexually forced to do something she did not consent on doing, she
has the right to fight back and prevent it from happening. Rape does not only
involve sexual assault; there is much physical assault involved, also. Many
women are held at gunpoint, knife, tied or beaten by their attackers, and this
is not right. Any woman under these circumstances should fight back and do what
they have to do to save themselves before it’s too late. Other situations which
call for justifiable violence, in my opinion, are robbery at gunpoint and any
other type of unprovoked violence.

Other than self-defense, I do not believe violence should be tolerated at
any cost. Hitting children when they do something “wrong” is not justifiable.

I believe that if a child does something their parents don’t want them to do,
they should be taught not to do it anymore simply because their parents don’t
want them to do it. But, I believe that when you hit a child when they do
something wrong, they don’t repeat the action because they’re afraid of the
consequences, rather than understanding why they shouldn’t do it again. It
gives the wrong impression on the child and teaches them that violence is okay
if you’re trying to teach someone a lesson, so they carry this over into their
lives when they get older, and the chain of violence is never broken.

War, in general, I believe, is ineffective. I think that it totally uses
the wrong reasons for countries to agree to compromise. It’s amazing that
before war, countries are totally against one another, yet after blowing away
half of each other’s population, they’re willing to talk. It makes you think.

I think that if countries would talk out their problems in a more peaceful
manner, they would much easier come up with plans that would include both of
their needs and desires. I think the world uses war in the wrong way; they’re
in wars to show their own power and prove themselves to the world. War is not
only bad because of those reasons. It is also negative because innocent men and
women from the involved countries are killed. Even if they couldn’t care less
about what was going on, they are drafted to fight for their country. And many
of them die, which is really depressing, because they didn’t want to be there in
the first place. The government declares war, yet the citizens suffer their
decision. Why don’t the Congressmen strap on some uniforms and get out on the
field and fight? If they’re the ones making the decision to fight, they should
be subject to the same consequences we are. They are determining the fate of
millions of people, yet keeping themselves safe. It’s unfair.

Though I think that war isn’t justifiable, I still hold to my belief that
if we must fight in our self-defense, then we should. However, I don’t believe
we should ever provoke another country to start a war, nor should we declare war
on another country unless they have already started attacking and killing our

Two acts of violence that I have a split opinion on are both the death
penalty and abortion. I don’t believe that both are either totally wrong or
totally right. I think the death penalty is a good concept, because I think it
might scare some people away from committing any crime that would require its
use. However, I don’t think it’s very effective because it doesn’t really teach
the person a lesson; they never have a chance to change. I think a life-long
jail term would be much more effective, because the person would be forced to
live in a bad environment and suffer and realize that what they did was wrong,
and this is how they have to pay for it. Death doesn’t really teach them
anything. I don’t support abortions, but I do understand that in some cases it
is better to not have the child than have it and let it grow up in bad
conditions. Most teens who get pregnant consider abortions because they are too
young, too irresponsible, and don’t have the time or money to raise a child.

And most of all, they don’t want the child. If they were to have the child and
raise it themselves, it wouldn’t grow up in very good care. The mother wouldn’t
necessarily put her child first, and it would probably end up getting raised by
grandparents. I think having the child and giving it up for adoption is better
than abortion in most cases. It avoids the violence of abortions and gives the
child a chance to live in the world.

Overall, I do not condone violence. However, I do believe that it is
justifiable in some very few cases, mainly, self-defense. All other times, I
feel it is unnecessary and differences can be worked out in other ways.


Women Rights | |

||Since the first American colonies existed, women|
||have been characterized for having less civil rights|
||with less career opportunities than men. For many|
||years women have been fighting to enjoy their own|
||rights. Women have raised their voices to demand|
||their full civil and political rights. Women have|
||had to overcome many economic, political, and even |
||social obstacles created by men just to be treated |
||in an equal way in the American society.|
||Generally, the women? lives have been characterized |
||for being women full of struggles, obstacles and|
||pain. That is why women decided to demand their own |
||rights through their vote. Which their vote will|
||symbolize the expression of their rights and voices |
||in the face of the American society. The first|
||obstacle that women had to overcome was to get their|
||right to vote. It was an obstacle because women|
||without vote married women did not have a legal|
||voice in the face of the government. During the|
||early history of the United States, a man owned his |
||wife and children as they were any material of his |
||possessions. For example if a poor man decided to|
||drop his children to the poorhouse, the children?|
||mother was unable to defense her children (Women?|
||International Center 2).|
||They are some of several obstacles in the old |
||American society. However these obstacles came from |
||the traditional society custom. The traditional|
||roles for women were to raise children and just to |
||become a wife and a mother. Even thought it is hard |
||to understand that motherhood and wifehood were the |
||most significant professions that women could have |
||(Women? International Center 1). Women could not|
||enter most professions. Women had to overcome the|
||obstacle regarding educational areas. To be more|
||specific a daily life of a girl of 19-years-old was |
||to be sitting for hours sewing gloves in the company|
||of other women, working for low wages, with no|
||aspiration, with no hope of going on in school or|
||even owning any kind of property. In fact, if she|
||decided to marry, her children and even the clothes |
||on her body would belong to her husband (Clinton|
||35). Women had to study traditional areas like|
||writing or teaching (Women? International Center 3) |
||and if they study those untraditional disciplines|
||like medicine, economic or law, they will considered|
||odd (Kreeps 35). This obstacle is more than an|
||obstacle it is a limitation for the women?|
||?orking women often faced discrimination on the|
||mistaken belief that, they were married or would|
||most likely get married; they would not be permanent|
||workers?(Women? International Center 3). The women |
||working in some ?en? professions and jobs?(Women?|
||International Center 2), caused an huge economic|
||obstacle in the American society because if a woman |
||that worked in a same job than a men, women were|
||paid about 45 percent less than men for the same|
||jobs (Barko 43). In the American society was a lot |
||of limitation in the areas of career opportunities. |
||However, in the United States during the World War |
||II almost 300,000 women served in the Army and Navy,|
||working as secretaries, typists, and nurses (Women? |
||International Center 3). It was a big step for women|
||in the labor area because in 1989, women were part |
||of a 45 percent of employed persons in the United|
||States, but they had only a small participation in |
||the decision-making jobs (Women? International|
||Center 3).|
||Women could not decide how many children they would |
||like to have. Families had, on average seven |
||children to take care. Many women died in|
||childbirth, and many others did not see their own|
||children grow into adulthood (Costello 25). Abortion|
||was also a political and, social obstacle because|
||both the government and the church did not agree|
||this idea. Women did not have the right to control |
||even their own body, specially the right to control |
||their own sexual reproduction (Eisenberg 5). |
||Limitations on a woman? rights included the|
||inability to establish a legal identity separate|
||from that of her husband, to control her|
||reproductive capacity, to sue or be sued, to own|
||property in her own name, or to pursue a career of |
||her choice (Jarvis, 150). The inability of taking|
||the control of their own reproduction was a huge|
||obstacle for women because women with a lot of|
||children could not work; they had to take care of|
||their babies. And these women with babies become|
||dependable of their husbands simply because their|
||husbands bring the money to home. |
||The status of women under the law began to change|
||once women began to organize for their political|
||rights and voting for policies that were in their|
||interests (Jarvis 151-52). If Women did not have the|
||right to vote, they could not express themselves|
||through it, they would not have the respect that|
||they deserve. After women recognized all of these|
||kinds of obstacles, women decided to stop the |
||unfairness treatment for them.|
||The awakening of women began with the visit to|
||America of Frances Wright? Scottish lecturer and|
||journalist?ho promoted women? rights through the|
||United States during the 1800s (From Revolution to |
||Reconstruction.). Women realized that they should|
||fight for their own rights. In the 1840s a group of |
||American women got together to began to demand for |
||the Women? Rights Movement (Eisenberg 1-2). This|
||group was lead by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and |
||Lucretia Mott which they organized the first Women |
||convention at Seneca Falls, New York. The convention|
||was a declaration to demand their equality with men |
||to the eyes of the law, the right to vote, and equal|
||opportunities in education and employment (Eisenberg|
||Getting the right to vote at the convention at the |
||Seneca Falls was the first women? obstacle overcame.|
||However, in the same year, Ernestine Rose, a Polish |
||immigrant, was the key for getting a law passed in |
||the State of New York that allowed married women to |
||own their property rights which this helped to|
||declare the Married Women? Property Act (From |
||Revolution to Reconstruction.). Thanks to these|
||declarations today the things had been changed|
||because women now can own any kind of property. And |
||they not only vote but vote in larger numbers than |
||men (Costello 25).|
||According to Juanita M. Kreps in her article, ?n|
||time several major social changes altered women?|
||lives dramatically. More and more women?ncluding|
||married and single women and those with and without |
||young children?oined the labor force. And Education |
||and training opportunities for women expand a little|
||more.?Through the declaration of the women? civil|
||rights, now they can live a life without sex |
||discrimination which also was an obstacle overcame. |
||Today, sex discrimination had been prohibited by the|
||federal and state law, in employment, education and |
||housing (American Civil Liberties Union). Now most |
||of the professions are open to women, although the |
||?lass ceiling?is still a barrier to women?|
||development in their jobs (Costello 25) because the |
||opportunities exist but those are really hard to|
||reach for women.|
||Now most American have to assume that the legal|
||status of women in the United Stated today is so|
||well established that it is not subject to|
||significant challenges. At the end of the twentieth |
||century, the status of women in U.S. society was|
||getting a tremendous change. In recent years, the|
||opinions relating to a women? right to control her |
||reproductive process, and equal level to educational|
||opportunities have dominated the public discussion. |
||Looking toward the next century, it is clear that|
||legal issues concerning the status of American women|
||including their personal lives, at school, in the|
||workplace, and at the ballot box will continue to|
||have a significant impact on women? ability to|
||succeed in the aspect of global economy (Jarvis|
||Today? women are very different from the Colonial|
||times even socially, politically, and economically. |
||Now women can vote and express their voices through |
||it. And actually women vote in larger numbers than |
||men. However, how we can explain in the history of |
||this country we have not experienced the time of|
||having a woman as a President of the United States. |
||Now many educational and jobs opportunities exist on|
||an equal level for women and men. The right of|
||abortion, while still under attack, is guaranteed by|
||the Constitution. As a result of these obstacles,|
||women today participate in all aspect of society on |
||a more equal basis than ever before.|

Computers and Biology

Computers have enhance the study of Biology tremendously, as well
discoveries have enhance the progression of computers. Without
computers, Biology would be no where. We would not have the high
tech microscopes. We would not be able to process information at
lighting speeds. Finally, we would have no place to store all the
information that we gathered. Can you imagine all the paper we would
use to record all the information that we gather?
Computers have not only helped us with experimenting; they have
helped us to educate students. There has been tons of software
developed to educate students about science and in particular Biology.
They have allowed students to create experimental 3D models, collect
research and now students can even use computers to dissect “Virtual
Aimed at middle school and high school students, Virtual Creatures is the
creation of a group called SUMMIT (Stanford University Medical Media
and Information Technologies Group). SUMMIT was founded eight
years ago to create computer-based teaching tools for the Stanford
University School of Medicine and has expanded to provide educational
multimedia for medical students and doctors.
This program will allow students to dissect frogs without the scalpels,
probes or formaldehyde. Without touching the frog, you can rotate it to
view it from any angle and study its external anatomy. On command, the
skin turns transparent. You can even zoom through it to view the muscles,
or peel the muscles back to expose the internal organs and skeleton.
The Virtual Creatures team used virtual reality technology to create a rich
environment — called Frog Island — with many opportunities for
interactive learning. After being greeted by a ranger who explains how to
get around the island, students can visit, in any order, a series of huts,
each focusing on a different aspect of frog biology: muscles, organ
systems, bones, nerves, habitat and so on. With this virtual reality model
students don’t have to worry about real-life constraints. For instance,
you can take a frog apart in any sequence. You could start with the
digestive system and then put it back together.
This as you would expect does require a lot of processing power and
high-end graphics. But the speed of innovation in the computer industry
should soon make the necessary technology affordable for many schools.

The SUMMIT team is also looking at ways to transfer most of the
processing work to a central computer, which students and teachers
could access by logging on from a cheaper computer.
This is where biology has actually helped computers develop. Biology
and the study of proteins and molecular biology have helped scientists
develop new ways of building computers. They have helped reduce the
size and cost of creating components for a computer system.
Imagine if we could create a storage medium the size of a sugar cube that
stores a terabyte of information. Imagine if I said that it would not be
based on silicon transistors, but would be based on protein molecules that
change their shape when exposed to light. This enables them to store and
transfer massive amounts of data.
This technology is called Nanotechnology. It is leading to the
development of electronic components at the molecular and atomic
levels. Single bits are going to be represented by single atoms. Chip
sizes have been shrinking at an incredible rate. If they continue at the
current pace now, it will so be more expensive to shrink then it’s worth.
This new technology may provide the answer in protein-based computing.

Researchers are currently studying several molecules to find a possible
“biology standard” for designing computers. The most popular molecule
is a protein called bacteriorhodopsin. Although we are just hearing about
it now, Soviet scientists have been interested in this protein since the early
They recognized the potential of the molecule to act as a switch with
on and off positions. This is basically how the silicon transistors work
today. While silicon transistors alter its state when a current of electricity
excites the electrons in it, a protein changes its shape when it absorbs
light. A laser beam is used to control the switching in a matrix of memory
Bacteriorhodopsin is a complex protein found in most salt-marsh
environments. It contains a light-absorbing component called a
chromophore. When this chromosphore is exposed to light, such as a
laser beam, it absorbs the rays and causes a series of internal processes
to occur with in the bacteriorhodopsin. This changes the electrical
character. Scientists can then translate these resulting electrical changes
into the binary language. This is the language that the computer will
This experiment has better results when scientists add a second laser.
This creates something called a sequential one-photon architecture. For
long-term memory applications many bacteriorhodopsin devices tend to
create one stable element aside from the natural state, thereby giving you
the requisite 0 and 1. Adding another laser beam also enables engineers
to create a special intermediate state that can branch into two other stable
states. This is especially useful for an application becoming popular not
only in biological circles, but in the holographic community as well; 3D
The whole goal here is to create a tiny cube that can store vast amounts
of storage. Holographers have another method to reach this goal. They
arrange two sets of laser beams at 90-degree angles. They all face a
bacteriorhodopsin cube. After the first set is fired, a special intermediate
state, which we’ll call A, is created. When the number of A elements
reaches a near-maximum level, scientists then fire the second set of
lasers. This causes the A state to switch to a different short-lived
structure, which we’ll call B. Soon after, structure B changes into a highly
stable format, which we’ll call C. Scientists are really excited about this
format because it can remain stable for years.
When they assign the base state to 0 and the B and C to 1, engineers
have re-created the binary switching technology. The lasers have the
ability to read and write to multiple locations within the bacteriorhodopsin
simultaneously; thus this creates faster parallel operations that can be
implemented. The engineers have estimated that they can perform
operations at a rate of 10MB per second.
There are however some problems with this new technology. Writing is
not a big problem, but reading is. Errors can occur because of noise from
the laser interfering with the read signal. Another problem is the
molecular structure. In order for this to work as high-speed memory
these bacterorhodopsin cubes must be uniformly the same.Any
variation in the structure could change or distort the data. These
problems are being worked and develop by a man named Dr. Robert
Birage of Syracuse University.
Biology and computers have always been intertwined with each other.
Computers are helping teachers teach the subject, and they are helping
researchers to research and make more discoveries at lighting speeds.
Biology is also advancing computer technology. We can see this with the
new nanotechnology. This kind advancement is not going to slow down
anytime soon. Researchers will continue to discover new things in
Biology, and will continue to invent faster ways to push the computer
systems they use.

Computers and Biology
Biology 101
10 wk session
1. Aubrey, David. Progressive proteins. Computer Shopper, April 1996.

Vol 16n4. P563. Online: SearchBank.
2. Levin, Carol. High Protein Computers. PC Magazine. May 30, 1995.

Vol 14 n10. P29. Online: SearchBank.
3. “”Virtual Creatures” Teach Biology Without Dissection,”


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Edward Gein

All through history there have been stories of death and killing. There have been many murders in America. Some
killers have had odd practices that they inflict on their victims; however, few have gone to the extent of Edward
Gein. Because of his obsession with women and odd practices committed on the bodies of his victims, Edward Gein
is considered to be the most bizarre murderer in America’s history.
Ed Gein was born in La Crosse, Wisconsin on August 21, 1906 (Woods 8). His father later moved the family to
Plainfield, Wisconsin (Woods 9). Gein had one brother named Henry (Woods 6). Their father was an alcoholic and
their mother was a strict believer in God and doing the right thing. Their mother impressed on them the importance
of marriage before sex. In 1940, Ed’s father died. Even though he was thirty-four, Gein was still living on the farm
with his mother and brother (Woods 22).
In 1944, Henry Gein asked Ed to help him do some controlled burning on a marsh on the family’s property. Ed had
taken care of his part of the burning and went looking for his brother, but could not find him. Ed organized a search
party, but they found nothing. On his way back to the house, Ed found Henry laying on a brush pile, dead. Ed
attributed the death to heart attack or smoke inhalation, and the idea of an accident was accepted by all. No autopsy
was performed. Some people believe that this may have been the beginning of Ed’s killing spree(Woods 23).
The next year, 1945, Ed’s mother suffered a stroke. Ed says it was because of the way his neighbors constantly
argued and how much it upset his mother. Ed was in charge of taking care of his mother. He took care of her for a
period at the farm but could not handle it and was forced to put her into a hospital. Soon after, she had a second
stoke and died (Woods 34).
This left Ed alone. He began reading books about the female anatomy and became very interested in adventure
stories involving head hunter and cannibals. At one point, a well-meaning person brought him back two shrunken
heads from the Philippines. Ed found them very interesting and showed them off to many people in the community.
As time went on he also became interested in the preservation of the human body after death and read books on the
subject (Gollmar 74).
In 1947, Ed began robbing graves in three local cemeteries. Sometimes he would take the whole body and
sometimes just parts. His favorite part was usually the head of the dead person (Gollmar 58). He would cut it from
the body in the cemetery and take it back to his house. When there, he would make a death mask. He would remove
the skin from the bone and stuff the skin with tissue paper and saw dust. When the police searched his house, they
found approximately ten of these masks scattered around the home of Ed Gein (Portrait of a Killer 40).
In 1954, Ed committed the first murder he admits to. Mary Hogan, the owner and operator of a local tavern was
killed. She was shot and her head was possibly cut off at the scene. At the scene, the police found a large pool of
blood but no drag marks. Therefore Mary Hogan had been carried from the bar. After Gein had been caught, the
police realized he was too small too carry the large stature of Mary Hogan from the scene and believed he may have
had an accomplice for this murder and the grave robbings, but Gein constantly denied this (Gollmar 89).
Ed Gein had few close friends. However, after he was caught a man who was believed to be Gein’s best friend
became violently mentally ill and was committed to a mental hospital. He died in the hospital a short time later. The
police think he may have been Gein’s accomplice in the murder of Mary Hogan (Gollmar 45).
Ed Gein’s final victim was a local shop owner named Bernice Worden. The killing took place on November 16,
1957. It was opening day of deer season so very few men or women were around town. Gein came into the store to
buy anti-freeze for his car. He also wanted to buy a new .22 caliber gun. Gein had a .22 shell in his coat pocket. He
loaded it into the gun and shot Worden once. He then either cut off her head or slit her throat, making a large pool of
blood in the store. Gein then dragged her out the back of the store and put her in the hardware store truck. Gein
drove out to a secluded area and parked the truck. He then walked back to the store and got his own truck and
transferred the body from one to the other. Now it was time for Ed to do his work (House of Horrors 30).
Once the body had arrived at the Gein farm Ed put it into a farm, shed and butchered it. He cut a hole above the
Achilles tendon on each leg and then inserted a stick trough the hole then tied the legs near the ankles to the end of
the stick. Then he tied her hands together at the wrists and tied these to the stick also. Gein then disemboweled
Worden. This is described by Dr. Eigenberger in the autopsy report. “The body was opened by median incision from
the manubrium sterni and extending in the midline to the area just above the mons veneris. Here the cut circled
around the external genitalia for the complete removal of the vulva, lower vagina, and the anus with the lowest
portion of the rectum. To accomplish this, the symhysis pubis had been split and the pubic bone widely separated”
Gein was found at his house having just finished supper. He was taken into custody. Now the search of Ed’s
collection would soon begin.
The Gein house was without electricity, so before the search could begin, the authorities were forced to bring in
many generators and flashlights. As they searched the house occasionally officers left and became violently ill
because of what they saw inside. In combination with the newly killed body of Bernice Worden, the police found
Ed’s collection of masks. Also, it appeared Ed had removed the genitals of some of his other victims, either ones he
killed or ones he exhumed from the cemetery. Also they found Ed’s bed. It was a standard bed except on all four
posts sat the skull of a human. The police found two chairs that had been upholstered with the skin of human beings
along with a lamp shade made of human skin. In the kitchen the men found containers made of the skull caps of the
humans which Gein used as bowls or glasses for eating. Most disturbing of all the things found was the suit Gein
had made. It was the full torso of a woman. The skin had been tanned. !
Gein admitted to putting it on at night and dancing around in his backyard. Also at night, he would put on the death
masks he had made of people. They also found a belt made of the nipples of the women he had killed. Even with all
the female body parts and other things Gein sternly denied necrophilia. He said he would never do that because of
the repulsive smell the dead people had (Gollmar 30-42).
As the trial came around, the judge thought it fit to first have a sanity hearing. In this case four psychiatrists were
consulted to decide if Ed knew the difference between right and wrong. Three out of four found him insane. Gein
reported times of memory lapses and other things that led to the decision. One of the doctors E. F. Schubert was
quoted in court as saying, “It is considered opinion of the staff of Central State Hospital the Mr. Gein is legally
insane. He felt he had no real choice in the matter Mrs. Worden’s death (Gollmar 81). This was something that was
to happen and he was the agent that carried it out…We reached the conclusion that this is an illness that has been
going on for a number of years, probably for at least twelve years, and his is a chronic mental disorder”(Gollmar
84). The one person who found him mentally sane was Dr. Edward M. Burns. He said, “Mr. Gein is not
feebleminded or mentally deficient, but he is chronically mentally ill…h!
e however can cooperate with his counsel and therefore is legally sane” (Gollmar 89). Judge Herbert A. Bunde
declared Gein legally insane and sent to Central State Hospital at Waupaun for an indeterminate stay. On January
16, 1968, Edward Gein was tried again for murder and found guilty. He was sent back to Central State(Gollmar
Gein remained in Central State until his death in 1985. During his stay he had the occasion to be interviewed again.
His ideas on the murder had not changed since the trial in 1957 and the trial in 1968.
One of the questions that still remains is how many people Gein really killed. When the police were searching the
house, they found the remains of two females that were approximately the age of 15. There were no women in this
age range buried in the cemetery so many people believe he may have killed these two girls. Some also believe his
motive for murdering people was money. He is also believed to have killed two hunters from Chicago that were
brandishing large amounts of money. One evening in a bar, patrons say Gein offered to be their hunting guide and
they were never seen again. Some also believe he killed his brother so that he would get the entire inheritance when
his mother died (Gollmar 86-92).
The story of Ed Gein is riddled with mystery and suspicion. How could he have dug up the graves himself? Did he
have an accomplice? Was Gein a cannibal? This is obviously a very odd case. Three movies, Psycho, Texas
Chainsaw Massacre, and Silence of the Lambs, were based on Gein’s case. This case is the most bizarre case of
serial murder in the history of America, if not the World (Gollmar 108,126,156).

The Color Purple Book Report

1.The main character in The Color Purple is a young black Georgia girl named Celie. She is uneducated and uses a non-standard dialect when writing and speaking. She was born into a poor family. Her mother was ill much of the time, and there were too many children. She was raped by her father, who she later finds out is actually her step-father. She has very little self-worth and self-esteem. In the end she is able to triumph over the sexual and racial oppression that she has had to face.

2.One of the minor characters is Shug Avery. She is a blues singer who teaches Celie about love and self-esteem. At first she seems to be selfish and arrogant. She tries to avoid the truth about who she really is. She is uncompromisingly honest, in fact, her first words to Celie were, “You sure is ugly.” By nature she is manipulative and superficially popular. She’s a “free spirit.” She’s full of life on stage, and it appears that she lives a sweet life. The fact that she sings blues is due to the lonely isolation she feels.

Another minor character is Mr.—– or Albert. He is the moody, vicious man that Fonso chooses as Celie’s husband. He is quite an evil man, and surprisingly weak. His mistreatment of Celie is totally unnecessary, yet his adoration of Shug shows a soft side. Albert’s father did not raise him to be independent, but rather to serve his father’s own needs. As he grew older and had his father as a role model, he became self-centered and an irrational individual. Just like the other characters, Albert is reformed throughout the novel. He goes from being a detestable figure to an understanding, grandfatherly figure.

3.The setting is not actually told to the reader. It must be concluded from clues throughout the novel. It is however stated that it takes place in Georgia and Africa simutaneously, since Celie is in Georgia and Nettie is in Africa. There are large gaps between letters, sometimes as much as five years. The letters begin in a time when people ride around in wagons, and when the letters end, people are driving cars. From this it can be concluded that the time is near the beginning of the twentieth century.

4.The novel begins with Celie’s letter. She is writing to God and trusting him as she would trust a best friend for guidance and strength, despite the unhappiness she feels within herself and all those around her. She tells him that she is only fourteen, but already she does the cooking, cleaning, and caring for her siblings because of her mother’s poor health. She has also been raped by her father.
By the age of fifteen Celie has grown up considerably. She is pregnant for the second time. Her mother dies and leaves her to watch over the children. At this point she believes that Fonso, her father and the father of her children, has killed her other child. Fonso remarries and promises Celie to marry Mr.—–.

For years, Celie withstands Mr.—–, Albert’s, brutal violence. She is more a slave to her husband, than she is a wife. And then something unexpected happens. Her husband’s mistress, Shug, comes to the house to recuperate and Celie becomes her nurse. As Shug grows stronger physically, and as Celie nurses her, Shug encourages Celie to grow stronger psychologically. At the same time, Sofia, Celie’s daughter-in-law shows Celie how to stand up to men, prejuduce, and injustice, and to fight. It isn’t easy for Celie to act on these new concepts, but when she finds proof that Albert has hidden all of her sister’s letters from her, trying to make her think that Nettie was either dead or that she never wrote, Celie can’t take anymore. She fights back. She leaves him and goes to Memphis to find happiness with a woman who loves her.

All through the years, she has kept the memory of Nettie alive, despite the fact that that there was no proof Nettie was even alive. Nettie is not only alive, but she helped raise Celie’s two children.

When the novel ends, Celie has learned to love herself and others. She has endured much and has learned to fight. She has won her battles. In fact, not only has Celie won, but she has discovered a sense of joy that she never realized was possible.

5.One symbol from the book would have to be Olivia and Adam. They are Celie’s children by her father. Both of their lives originated from her being raped by her father. They both symbolize her pain and grief. They are reminders of the incest in which they were created from, and yet at the same time they symbolize a type of freedom or joy. Theey were brought into the world under bad circumstances, but they led happy lives. Things can change.

Another symbol is the road that runs through the Olinka village. Just as the slave traders arrived many years before and robbed Africa of its best people, the roadbuilders now rob the Africans of their homes and lands. The Olinka did not realize that the road was going to run through their village. They are symbolically blind to the progress that they cannot stop. They became friends with the roadbuilders who were their distant cousins, and much like the time when the blacks sold one another into slavery, they were betrayed.

6.A.You better not never tell nobody but God. It’d kill your mammy.

Dear God,
I am fourteen years old. I am I have always been a good girl. Maybe you can give me a sign letting me know what is happening to me.

Last spring after little Lucious come I heard them fussing. He was pulling on her arm. She say It too soon, Fonso, I ain’t well. Finally he leave her alone. A week go by, he pulling on her arm again. She say Naw, I ain’t gonna. Can’t you see I’m already half dead, an all of these children.

She went to visit her sister doctor over Macon. Left me to see after the others. He never had a kine word to say to me. Just say You gonna do what your mammy wouldn’t. First he put his thing up gainst my hip and sort of wiggle it around. Then he grab hold my titties. Then he push his thing inside my *censored*. When that hurt, I cry. He start to choke me, saying You better shut up and git used to it.

But I don’t never git used to it. And now I feels sick every time I be the one to cook. My mama she fuss at me an look at me. She happy, cause he good to her now. But too sick to last long.

This passage is the first passage, or letter in the book. It leaves the reader stunned because it is so powerful yet brief. It’s in such a matter-of-fact style. Talking to her friend God, Celie uses certain words without any embarrassment since they are the only words she knows for those terms. What is shocking is the fact that her father has raped her and threatened more violence if she tells anyone about it. The violence itself is shocking, not Celie’s language.

B.Dear God,
They have made three babies together but he squeamish bout giving her a bath. Maybe he figure he start thinking bout things he shouldn’t. But what bout me? First time I got the full sight of Shug Avery long black body with it black plum nipples, look like her mouth, I thought I had turned into a man.

What you staring at? she ast. Hateful. She weak as a kitten. But her mouth just pack with claws. You never seen a naked woman before?
No ma’am, I said. I never did. Cept for Sofia, and she so plump and ruddy and crazy she feel like my sister.

She say, Well take a good look. Even if I is just a bag of bones now. She have the nerve to put one hand on her naked hip and bat her eyes at me. Then she suck her teef and roll her eyes at the ceiling while I wash her.

I wash her body, it feel like I’m praying. My hands tremble and my breath short.

She say, You ever have any kids?
I say, Yes ma’am.

She say, How many and don’t you yes ma’am me, I ain’t that old.

In this passage Celie innocently looks at Shug, and she is excited by her naked body. At the same time she feels as though she is performing a sacred right when she is bathing Shug. This is shown when she admmits to God that she feels like she is praying.

C.Dear Celie, the first letter say,
You’ve got to fight and get away from Albert. He ain’t no good.

When I left you all’s house, walking, he followed me on his horse. When we was well out of sight of the house he caught up with me ans started trying to talk. You know how he do, You sure looing fine, Miss Nettie, and stuff like that. I tried to ignore him and walk faster, but my bundles was heavy and the sun was hot. After while I had to rest, and that’s when he got down from his horse and started to try to kiss me, and drag me back in the woods.

Well, I started to fight him, and with God’s help, I hurt him bad enough to make him let me alone. But he was some mad. He said because of what I’d done I’d never hear from you again, and you never hear from me.

I was so mad myself I was shaking.

Anyhow, I got a ride into town on somebody’s wagon. And that same somebody pointed me in the direction of the Reverend Mr.—–‘s place. And what was my surprise when a little girl opened the door and she had your eyes set in your face.

This passage is the first letter that Celie recieves from her sister. She receives it well after it was written because just like he said he would, Albert never gave it to Celie. This is the first news she’s had of Nettie in years, and now she finally knows what had happened to her and why she hasn’t heard from her for so long.

D.Dear God,
That’s it, say Shug. Pack your stuff. You coming back to Tennessee with me.

But I feels daze.

My daddy lynch. My mama crazy. All my little half-brothers and sisters no kin to me. My children not my sister and brother. Pa not pa.

You must be sleep.

This passage is where Celie finds out the truth about many aspects of her life. She has been lied to on a number of occasions, and now things are finally being revealed. She learns that the man she has thought to be her father is acctually only her step-father; therefore, their children were not born out of incest.

7.The Color Purple is a story about growth, endurance, loyalty, and joy, all nurtured by the strength of love. There are many themes, some concern the relationship between males and females, the relationship between Africans and bkack Americans, and personal independence. Samuel and Nettie are perfect examples of the relationship between Africans and black Americans. They are good missionaries, but they don’t have a place where they belong. They neither belong to the world of the Europeans or the traditional world of their ancestors in Africa. They belong only to God and to one another.

Racism’s Nature

In our textbook, prejudice is defined as: ” a form of thinking whereby an
individual forms an unfavorable attitude directed towards groups of people,
based on insufficient or incorrect evidence about these groups”. Prejudice
has been a part of society for as long as society has been. There are many
different theories on the reasons for why people form prejudices. The theory of
social categorization states that it is human nature to put people into
categories based on certain characteristics. Which is also how we form
stereotypes. Stereotypes give us a preconceived notion of how people of a
certain group are going to act before we have experienced it firsthand.

Basically, stereotypes are generalizations. They may apply to some members of a
particular group but definitely not everyone. Another theory, illusory
correlation, states that we tend to notice unusual behavior that occurs in
minority groups rather than the same behavior that would occur in a majority
group. The theory that I find most interesting is the social-identity theory,
which states that people are prejudice in order to increase there self-esteem by
believing that other groups are inferior to them. After reading about all the
different reasons for prejudice, I believe that it is a combination of all the
theories mentioned above. I also strongly believe that the way a person is
brought up strongly ties into their beliefs. If a child is brought up listening
to his/hers parents talking negatively about a certain group of people it often
leads to the child having the same beliefs as their parents. Another possible
cause is if someone has a bad or traumatizing experience. For instance, if
someone is robbed by a person of a different race they may than believe that
everyone of that race is a thief and therefore they form a prejudice against
that group of people. Experience is an important factor in why some people
become prejudice or not. Imagine you have grown up on a farm in Idaho your
entire life. You have never seen or met an African American person first hand,
but your whole life you have been told that they are terrible people who deal
drugs and murder innocent people. Although they have never experienced them
firsthand, automatically this person will have a negative outlook on that group
of people. The point I am trying to make is that your different experiences and
what you have been taught plays a big role in the prejudices that you will form.

Usually if you are immersed by all different kinds of people and have known
people from all different cultures, you will tend to have a more open mind.

Ignorance is the biggest reason for why we form prejudices in the first place.

If we think back to the fifties and sixties, the amount of prejudice and racial
discrimination has been reduced dramatically. However, as much as society tries
to stress the importance of equality there is still a great amount of
discrimination still going on in the world. So, how can we reduce prejudice
effectively? I believe that a major part in this process is educating people
from young ages about prejudice and how they need to be open to all types of
people. Schools need to be culturally diversified so that child can experience
other types of people firsthand. I know that isn’t as easy as it sounds,
especially when we put into perspective financial situations and where schools
are located, but I think it is important that from a young age that people
experience all types of cultures. Another way to educate people is by stressing
that people are all different, whether it is from the way they dress or they way
that they talk. Instead of looking down at other people’s differences we need to
be taught to celebrate them. In conclusion, I believe that prejudice is
something that still plagues our society. I feel that it has definitely has
improved over time and if things keep progressing, prejudice could possibly
cease to exist in the future. As long as we keep educating our children and
society, I think we are heading towards the right track.


Oh, they’ve encased him in carbonite. He should be quite well protected. If he survived the freezing
process, that is.”
– C-3P0
As any Ugnaught will tell you, there’s more to Cloud City than just Dark Deal or a bad case of gas. One of
the more eagerly awaited features of Cloud City was Carbon-Freezing, and, although it isn’t exactly the
most stable strategy to base a deck around, it can still serve as a healthy deterrent to anyone foolish
enough to attempt a takeover of Cloud City.

But before you can serve your guests a chilled side of Solo, you’ll need to stock up on a few items. Most
vital is the Carbonite Chamber, where it all comes together. Contrary to what you may think, it’s often best
to hold off on deploying the Chamber until all the necessary components for freezing are in hand, since, if
your opponent occupies this battleground site, you face an automatic penalty to your Carbon-Freezing
destiny draw.
Naturally, you’ll also require either All Too Easy or Carbon-Freezing to activate the Chamber’s
mechanisms. All Too Easy is the better side strategy, requiring neither a captive nor a separate destiny
draw, but it can only be pulled off once and lacks the hefty 8 Force loss incurred by Carbon-Freezing
(unless, of course, you happen to have Pray I Don’t Alter It Any Further face-up; keep your Darth Vader With
Lightsaber handy). Carbon-Freezing also has the additional advantage of being eligible for Twi’lek Advisor.

Nothing like starting the game with a head start!
You’ll also need some means of artificially enhancing your destiny draw for Carbon-Freezing. After all, it’s
not like there aren’t too many 11-destiny cards out there. The Chamber alone adds two to your draw, but
that’s not always enough. Ugnaughts can serve as both cumulative one-point bonuses to your destiny, and
Prepare The Chamber can also strengthen your chances of success. It’s all easily found by flipping a few
switches on the Carbonite Chamber Console, a handy-dandy device that boosts your Carbon-Freezing
draw by three.

And, finally, you’ll require a captive. While this stipulation may have been bothersome back in the early
days, recent innovations have made it less of a hassle. You can begin the game with a captive in play if
you’re using the Carbon Chamber Testing.
Objective, or you can steal your opponent’s captive if the Light Side is using Rescue The Princess. Oo-ta,
Goo-ta, Solo? is a hassle-free way to take a few captives if your opponent is a Nabrun Leids fan. Hidden
Weapons is a nasty surprise in battle, and All Wrapped Up makes capturing a natural result of battle. But
some of the best options available have – horror of horrors! – green borders. Zuckuss’ Snare Rifle and
Dengar’s Blaster Carbine are both weapons that can snag captives, and both can be deployed on your
bounty hunters easily with Jabba’s Through With You. And we must not forget the terrible IG-88 With Riot
Gun, a take-all-prisoners killing machine who cannot even be battled, making him a perfect Sniper.
Now that you have everything you need (finally!), it’s easy to freeze. Just draw, add your modifiers, and voila!
There’s your frozen captive, who is far more secure than other captives, since he’s encased in liquid metal.

Furthermore, your opponent loses eight Force, quite a hit to take. If you wish, you can go for the big guns
with two wicked Utinni Effects. The Emperor’s Prize is just the ticket for that player who thinks Luke and
company is all he needs to stop any threat. Once young Skywalker is ‘frozen,’ relocate him to the Death
Star: Detention Block Corridor with his old man and your opponent loses half his Life Force! While it may
seem like a long shot, it’s easy to find the Detention Block, either with Sonic Bombardment or the more
recent Any Methods Necessary, and who doesn’t play with Vader?
If your opponent is more of a team player, you can set a lovely trap for him with We’re The Bait. Freeze any
one of Luke’s best buddies and watch the farmboy scramble to save them, since he’s losing three Force a
turn. If he tries to cheat and hire Nabrun Leids, you may as well play Oo-ta, Goo-ta, Solo? and earn yourself
another Rebel juice pop in the making.

All this may seem like it takes too much deck space to be worth the trouble, and in many cases it is. But
many of these cards have other applications. Ugnaughts are notorious patrons of a certain Den Of
Thieves, they admire Abyssin Ornaments and Ugloste gives them more bang for the buck. Prepare The
Chamber, aside from increasing your Carbon-Freezing destiny draws, can add an extra battle destiny if
your little porkers are defending. And, if you’re using This Deal Is Getting Worse All The Time/Pray I Don’t
Alter It Any Further, they’ll even increase your total battle destiny by four points when they’re with Imperials!
All Too Easy is a less card-intensive means of freezing Luke, Han, Leia or Chewie if you’re interested in
The Emperor’s Prize or We’re The Bait. And the mechanic fits right into capturing-related decks.

“We would be honored if you would join us.”
–Darth Vader
All this is only scratching the surface. Cloud City can support almost any sort of deck you can imagine.

From the popular Dark Deal to the deadly Carbon-Freezing, there are more kinds of decks that can be
based on Bespin than nearly any other system. It might be worth your while to take a long, hard look
through your binder and reconsider cards and concepts you may have forgotten two years ago. You just
might find a Surprise or two. And the drama! Zube and Zube give Cloud City two thumbs up.
Time for some equality!