Television

Television
The start of the television market all began in 1897 by K.F. Braun. He
invented the cathode ray tube which would become the screen of most television
sets.


In 1925 C. Francis Jankins had used some ideas from a Scottish engineer,
A. A. Campbell, to create images on the screens. The United States navy used
this new technology to transfer images back and forth to its ships.


In 1929 David Sarnoff invested $50 million dollars into the development
of television sets. In 1935 Sarnoff committed RCA to the development of
television sets. Several networks had to begun to form in Europe such as the
British Broadcasting Corporation which provided the first television service.

Programs were only shown for 3 hours per day. During the next year the united
states set up eleven television stations. RCA demonstrated a television set at
the New York World’s Fair were Franklin D. Roosevelt spoke before a camera
becoming the first president to appear on television.


In 1940 the Colombian Broadcast company demonstrated its example of
color television. World War II brought the development of television to a stand
still. All materials had to go to the war effort. At the end of the war NBC
made the first made for television movie.


During the time between 1946 and 1951 the radio market was over taken by
the demand for televisions. Over 3 million sets had been sold by 1951.


1950’s were the beginning of the color broadcast. They were done at
night during the week days. In 1957 the first newscast was taped on video
cassette changing the way television shows would be produced forever. In 1957
Public Television was formed.


Since then color television has been reinvented but still remains color
television.


Music and Movies

Drugs And Crime

Use federal tax dollars to fund these therapeutic communities in prisons. I feel
that if we teach these prisoners some self-control and alternative lifestyles
that we can keep them from reentering the prisons once they get out. I am also
going to describe some of todays programs that have proven to be very
effective. Gottfredson and Hirschi developed the general theory of crime. It
According to their theory, the criminal act and the criminal offender are
separate concepts. The criminal act is perceived as opportunity; illegal
activities that people engage in when they perceive them to be advantageous.


Crimes are committed when they promise rewards with minimum threat of pain or
punishment. Crimes that provide easy, short-term gratification are often
committed. The number of offenders may remain the same, while crime rates
fluctuate due to the amount of opportunity (Siegel 1998). Criminal offenders are
people that are predisposed to committing crimes. This does not mean that they
have no choice in the matter, it only means that their self-control level is
lower than average. When a person has limited self-control, they tend to be more
impulsive and shortsighted. This ties back in with crimes that are committed
that provide easy, short-term gratification. These people do not necessarily
have a tendency to commit crimes, they just do not look at long-term
consequences and they tend to be reckless and self-centered (Longshore 1998,
pp.102-113). These people with lower levels of self-control also engage in
non-criminal acts as well. These acts include drinking, gambling, smoking, and
illicit sexual activity (Siegel 1998). Also, drug use is a common act that is
performed by these people. They do not look at the consequences of the drugs,
while they get the short-term gratification. Sometimes this drug abuse becomes
an addiction and then the person will commit other small crimes to get the drugs
or them money to get the drugs. In a mid-western study done by Evans et al.

(1997, pp. 475-504), there was a significant relationship between self-control
and use of illegal drugs. The problem is once these people get into the criminal
justice system, it is hard to get them out. After they do their time and are
released, it is much easier to be sent back to prison. Once they are out, they
revert back to their impulsive selves and continue with the only type of life
they know. They know short-term gratification, the “quick fix” if you
will. Being locked up with thousands of other people in the same situation as
them is not going to change them at all. They break parole and are sent back to
prison. Since the second half of the 1980s, there has been a large growth in
prison and jail populations, continuing a trend that started in the 1970s.


The proportion of drug users in the incarcerated population also grew at the
same time. By the end of the 1980s, about one-third of those sent to state
prisons had been convicted of a drug offense; the highest in the countrys
history (Reuter 1992, pp. 323-395). With the arrival of crack use in the
1980s, the strong relationship between drugs and crime got stronger. The use
of cocaine and heroin became very prevalent. Violence on the streets that is
caused by drugs got the publics attention and that put pressure on the police
and courts. Consequently, more arrests were made. While it may seem good at
first that these people are locked up, with a second look, things are not that
good. The cost to John Q. Taxpayer for a prisoner in Ohio for a year is around
$30,000 (Phipps 1998). That gets pretty expensive when you consider that there
are more than 1,100,000 people in United States prisons today (Siegel 1998).


Many prisoners are being held in local jails because of overcrowding. This rise
in population is largely due to the number of inmates serving time for drug
offenses (Siegel 1998). This is where therapeutic communities come into play.


The term “therapeutic community” has been used in many different forms of
treatment, including residential group homes and special schools, and different
conditions, like mental illness, alcoholism, and drug abuse (Lipton 1998,
pp.106-109). In the United States, therapeutic communities are used in the
rehabilitation of drug addicts in and out of prison. These communities involve a
type of group therapy that focuses more on the person a whole and not so much
the offense they committed or their drug abuse. They use a “community of
peers” and role models rather than professional clinicians. They focus on
lifestyle changes and tend to be more holistic (Lipton 1998, pp. 106-109). By
getting inmates to participate in these programs, the prisoners can break their
addiction to drugs. By freeing themselves from this addiction they can change
their lives. These therapeutic communities can teach them some self-control and
ways that they can direct their energies into more productive things, such as
sports, religion, or work. Seven out of every ten men and eight out of every ten
women in the criminal justice system used drugs with some regularity prior to
entering the criminal justice system (Lipton 1998, pp. 106-109). With that many
people in prisons that are using drugs and the connection between drug use and
crime, then if there was any success at all it seems like it would be a step in
the right direction. Many of these offenders will not seek any type of reform
when they are in the community. They feel that they do not have the time to
commit to go through a program of rehabilitation. It makes sense, then, that
they should receive treatment while in prison because one thing they have plenty
of is time. In 1979, around four percent of the prison population, or about
10,000, were receiving treatment through the 160 programs that were available
throughout the country (National Institute on Drug Abuse 1981). Forty-nine of
these programs were based on the therapeutic community model, which served
around 4,200 prisoners. In 1989, the percentage of prisoners that participated
in these programs grew to about eleven percent (Chaiken 1989). Some incomplete
surveys state today that over half the states provide some form of treatment to
their prisoners and about twenty percent of identified drug-using offenders are
using these programs (Frohling 1989). The public started realizing that drug
abuse and crime were on the rise and that something had to be done about it.


This led to more federal money being put into treatment programs in prisons
(Beckett 1994, pp. 425-447). The States were assisted through two Federal
Government initiatives, projects REFORM and RECOVERY. REFORM began in 1987, and
laid the groundwork for the development of effective prison-based treatment for
incarcerated drug abusers. Presentations were made at professional conferences
to national groups and policy makers and to local correctional officials. At
these presentations the principles of effective correctional change and the
efficacy of prison-based treatment were discussed. New models were formed that
allowed treatment that began in prison to continue after prisoners were released
into the community. Many drug abuse treatment system components were established
due to Project REFORM that include: 39 assessment and referral programs
implemented and 33 expanded or improved; 36 drug education programs implemented
and 82 expanded or improved; 44 drug resource centers established and 37
expanded or improved; 20 in-prison 12-step programs implemented and 62 expanded
or improved; 11 urine monitoring systems expanded; 74 prerelease counseling
and/or referral programs implemented and 54 expanded or improved; 39 post
release treatment programs with parole and 10 improved; and 77 isolated-unit
treatment programs started. In 1991, the new Center for Substance Abuse
Treatment established Project RECOVERY. This program provided technical
assistance and training services to start out prison drug treatment programs.


Most of the states that participated in REFORM were involved with RECOVERY, as
well as a few new states. In most therapeutic communities, recovered drug users
are placed in a therapeutic environment, isolated from the general prison
population. This is due to the fact that if they live with the general
population, it is much harder to break away from old habits. The primary
clinical staff is usually made up of former substance abusers that at one time
were rehabilitated in therapeutic communities. The perspective of the treatment
is that the problem is with the whole person and not the drug. The addiction is
a symptom and not the core of the disorder. The primary goal is to change
patterns of behavior, thinking, and feeling that predispose drug use (Inciardi
et al. 1997, pp. 261-278). This returns to the general theory of crime and the
argument that it is the opportunity that creates the problem. If you take away
the opportunity to commit crimes by changing ones behavior and thinking then
the opportunity will not arise for the person to commit these crimes that were
readily available in the past. The most effective form of therapeutic community
intervention involves three stages: incarceration, work release, and parole or
other form of supervision (Inciardi et al. 1997, pp.261-278). The primary stage
needs to consist of a prison-based therapeutic community. Pro-social values
should be taught in an environment that is separate from the normal prison
population. This should be an on-going and evolving process that lasts at least
twelve months, with the ability to stay longer if it is deemed necessary. The
prisoners need to grasp the concept of the addiction cycle and interact with
other recovering addicts. The second stage should include a transitional work
release program. This is a form of partial incarceration in which inmates that
are approaching release dates can work for pay in the free community, but they
must spend their non-working hours in either the institution or a work release
facility (Inciardi et al. 1997, pp. 261-278). The only problem here is that
during their stay at this facility, they are reintroduced to groups and
behaviors that put them there in the first place. If it is possible, these
recovering addicts should stay together and live in a separate environment than
the general population. Once the inmate is released into the free community, he
or she will remain under the supervision of a parole officer or some other type
of supervisory program. Treatment should continue through either outpatient
counseling or group therapy. In addition, they should also be encouraged to
return to the work release therapeutic community for refresher sessions, attend
weekly groups, call their counselors on a regular basis and spend one day a
month at the facility (Inciardi et al. 1997, pp. 261-278). Since the early
1990s, the Delaware correctional system has been operating this three-stage
model. It is based around three therapeutic communities: the KEY, a prison-based
therapeutic community for men; WCI Village, a prison-based therapeutic community
for women; and CREST Outreach Center, a residential work release center for men
and women. According to Inciardi et al. (1997, pp.261-278), the continuing of
therapeutic community treatment and sufficient length of follow up time, a
consistent pattern of reduction of drug use and recidivism exists. Their study
shows the effectiveness of the program extending beyond the in-prison program.


New Yorks model for rehabilitation is called the Stayn Out Program. This
is a therapeutic community program that was established in 1977 by a group of
recovered addicts (Wexler et al. 1992, pp. 156-175). The program was evaluated
in 1984 and it was reported that the program reduced recidivism for both males
and females. Also, from this study, the “time-in-program” hypothesis was
formed. This came from the finding that successful outcomes were directly
related to the amount of time that was spent in treatment. Another study, by
Toumbourou et al. (1998, pp. 1051-1064), tested the time-in-program hypothesis.


In this study, they found a linear relationship between reduced recidivism rates
and time spent in the program as well as the level of treatment attained. This
study found that it was the attainment of level progress rather than time in the
treatment that was most important. The studies done on New Yorks Stayn Out
program and Delawares Key-Crest program are some of the first large-scale
evidence that prison-based therapeutic communities actually produce a
significant reduction in recidivism rates and show a consistency over time. The
programs of the past did work, but before most of the programs were privately
funded, and when the funds ran out in seven or eight years, so did the programs.


Now with the government backing these types of programs, they should continue to
show a decrease in recidivism. It is much more cost effective to treat these
inmates. A program like Stayn Out cost about $3,000 to $4,000 more than the
standard correctional costs per inmate per year (Lipton 1998, pp. 106-109). In a
program in Texas, it was figured that with the money spent on 672 offenders that
entered the program, 74 recidivists would have to be prevented from returning to
break even. It was estimated that 376 recidivists would be kept from returning
using the therapeutic community program (Eisenberg and Fabelo 1996, pp.


296-318). The savings produced in crime-related and drug use-associated costs
pay for the cost of treatment in about two to three years. The main question
that arises when dealing with this subject is whether or not people change.


According to Gottfredson and Hirschi, the person does not change, only the
opportunity changes. By separating themselves from people that commit crimes and
commonly do drugs, they are actually avoiding the opportunity to commit these
crimes. They do not put themselves in the situation that would allow their low
self-control to take over. Starting relationships with people who exhibit
self-control and ending relationships with those who do not is a major factor in
the frequency of committing crimes. Addiction treatment is very important to
this countrys war on drugs. While these abusers are incarcerated it provides
us with an excellent opportunity to give them treatment. The will not seek
treatment on their own. Without treatment, the chances of them continuing on
with their past behavior are very high. But with the treatment programs we have
today, things might be looking up. The studies done on the various programs,
such as New Yorks Stayn Out and Delawares Key-Crest program, prove that
there are cost effective ways available to treat these prisoners. Not only are
they cost effective, but they are also proven to reduce recidivism rates
significantly. These findings are very consistent throughout all of the
research, there are not opposing views. I believe that we can effectively treat
these prisoners while they are incarcerated and they can be released into
society and be productive, not destructive. Nothing else has worked to this
point, we owe it to them, and more importantly, we owe it to ourselves. We can
again feel safe on the streets after dark, and we do not have to spend so much
of our money to do it. Bibliography
Bibliography
Ball, J.C., J.W. Shaffer, and D.N. Nurco. 1983. “Day-to-day criminality of
heroin addicts in Baltimore: a study in the continuity of offense rates.” Drug
and Alcohol Dependence. 12: 119-142. Beckett, K. 1994. “Setting the Public
Agenda: “Street Crime” and Drug Use in American Politics.” Social
Problems. 41(3): 425-447. Chaiken, M.R. 1989. “In-Prison Programs for
Drug-Involved Offenders.” Research in Brief. Washington, DC: National
Institute of Justice. Eisenberg, M., and Tony Fabelo. 1996. “Evaluation of the
Texas Correctional Substance Abuse Treatment Initiative: The impact of policy
research.” Crime and Delinquency. 42(2): 296-318. Evans, T.D., F.T. Cullen,
V.S. Burton, R.G. Dunaway, and M.L. Benson. 1997. “The social consequences of
self-control: Testing the general theory of crime.” Criminology. 35: 475-504.


Frohling, R. 1989. “Promising Approaches to Drug Treatment in Correctional
Settings.” Criminal Justice Paper No. 7. National Conference of State
Legislatures, Washington, DC. Inciardi, J.A., S.S. Martin, C.A. Butzin, R.M.


Hooper, and L.D. Harrison. 1997. “An effective model of prison-based treatment
for drug-involved offenders.” Journal of Drug Issues. 27(2): 261-278.


Longshore, D. 1998. “Self-Control and Criminal Opportuinty: A Prospective Test
of the General Theory of Crime.” Social Problems. 45(1): 102-113. Lipton, D.S.


1998. “Therapeutic communities: History, effectiveness, and prospects.”
Corrections Today. 60(6): 106-109. National Institute on Drug Abuse. 1981.


“Drug Abuse Treatment in Prisons.” Treatment Research Report Series.


Washington, DC: U.S. GPO. Phipps, B. 1998. “Criminology class lecture
notes.” Reuter, P. 1992. “Community Crime Prevention: a review and synthesis
of the literature.” Justice Quarterly. 5(3): 323-395. Siegel, L.J. 1998.


Criminology. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Toumbourou, J.W., M. Hamilton, B.


Fallon. 1998. “Treatment level progress and time spent in treatment in the
prediction of outcomes following drug-free therapeutic community treatment.”
Addiction. 93(7): 1051-1064. Wexler, H.K., D. Lipton, G.P. Falkin, and A.B.


Rosenbaum. 1992. “Outcome evaluation of a prison therapeutic community for
substance abuse treatment.” In C.G. Leukkfeld and F.M. Tims (eds.), Drug Abuse
Treatment in Prisons and Jails. pp. 156-175. Washington, DC: U.S. GPO.

Hamlet

In the first section of the passage, Hamlet is filled with self-loathing. His feelings of worthlessness are made quite apparent as he questions himself with statements like “What is a man, if his chief good and market of his time be but to sleep and feed? A beast no more.” This metaphor clearly shows how unworthy Hamlet feels about the fact that he has been lying around doing nothing and his father remains unavenged. His use of unpleasant imagery like “bestial oblivion” and “fust” also contribute to his tone. Hamlet knows he has been thinking too much and acting too little. He questions his own courage when he says that his thoughts are ” but one part wisdom and ever three parts coward.” Hamlet understands that pondering on an action like he has been doing only leads to excuses to ignore the offense done to him, and it is his fear creating the excuses and leaving his honor soiled.


In the second section of the passage Hamlet is still angry at himself, especially when he views himself next to Fortinbras. He juxtaposes his own actions against Fortinbras’ in lines like “Why yet I live to say “This thing’s to do,” sith I have cause, and will, and strength, and means to do’t.” and “Witness this army of such mass and charge, led by a delicate and tender prince , whose spirit, with divine ambitioned puffed, makes mouths at the invisible event.” He continues to question his self worth as he sees the fact that Fortinbras is willing to spend 20,000 lives to gain honor in his “event,” while He himself has not been able to gather even enough courage take care of his “event” which is revenging his father. The comparison is clear Hamlet is a “coward” while Fortinbras is a brave “delicate and tender prince.”
In the third section Hamlet finds the answer to the self questioning that has occurred in the first to passages. He realizes he must take action immediately and quit delaying. He understands the fact that “Rightly to be great is not to stir without great argument, but greatly to find quarrel in a straw when honor’s at stake.” Hamlet has much greater reason then “a straw” to be angry and a vivid picture of his reason for rage is painted in the line “a father killed, a mother stained, excitements of my reason and my blood, let all sleep, while to my shame I see the imminent death of twenty thousand men.” His honor has been taken away and he is standing by watching normal men die without reason while he, a prince who is supposedly of noble blood stands idly by while his father lies dead and his murderer continues to sully Hamlets honor by sleeping with his victims wife. Hamlet’s admiration for Fortinbras’ action along with his feelings toward himself have turned to utter disgust. Hamlet uses grave imagery in his speech like ” (there) is not tomb enough and continent to hide the slain.” To show his mind has voyaged down to the depths of morbidity that show he is prepared to act. He knows that he is worth nothing until his father is avenged as he shows in his statement ” My thoughts be bloody, or they be nothing worth” this line clearly illustrates that by the end of the passage Hamlet’s state of mind is nothing short of murderous.

Joseph Patrick Kennedy

Joseph Patrick Kennedy
Joseph Patrick Kennedy was born on September 6, 1888, in Boston Massachusetts.He was born the son of Patrick Joseph Kennedy, a local politician and successful businessman, and his wife Mary Augusta Hickey Kennedy. His parents wanted only the best for young Joe.In 1901 Joe was enrolled in Boston Latin, and elite boys catholic school.He was a very popular student there as president of his class, colonel on the drill team, a baseball player, and valedictorian.The next step for Joe was Harvard.

There things were different; he was not the most popular student.He was not a particularly good student, and because of his Irish heritage, he had to endure a lot of slurs against his background.Yet he graduated thinking he was just as good as anyone in the class of 1912.

After Harvard he decided to go into banking, where he received a position as a state bank examiner.In less than a year he saw the opportunity he wanted.The Columbia Trust was about to be taken over by the First National.Joe decided that if anybody was to take over the Columbia, he should be the one.Joe had supporters, which was accompanied by a game of bluff that finally forced First National to give up.When the merger was called off, the Columbia directors rewarded him with the top job.At 25 he had become the youngest bank president in the country.

In 1914, now the successful bank president married the love of his life, Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald.Rose was the daughter of the Mayor of Boston, John Francis Fitzgerald, a leading Irish figure in Boston.Together they had 9 children, Joseph Patrick Jr., John Fitzgerald, Rosemary, Kathleen, Eunice Mary, Patricia, Robert Francis, Jean Ann, and Edward Moore.
By the age of 30 he had amassed a great fortune through business ventures that included motion pictures, shipbuilding, and real estate, and through the stock market. As chairman of the Federal Maritime Commission in 1937, he laid the groundwork for the U.S. merchant marine. He was ambassador to Great Britain from 1938 to 1940.But perhaps his greatest achievement was seeing his son become John become President of the United States.

As his parents did for him, he did the same for his children.He wanted nothing more than to see one his children as a great political leader.John F. Kennedy graduated from Harvard, as his father did before him, and went to become the 35th President of the United States of America.

In the middle of his life, when a Boston newspaper referred to him as an “Irishman” one time too many, Joe exploded: “Goddamn it!I was born in this country!My children were born in this country! What the hell does someone have to do to become and American?”And that he was not only an American, but also probably the epitome of the American dream.

Pollution

Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment. It is a major problem in America and as well as the world. Pollution not only damages the environment, but damages us also. It has cause many problems ranging from lung cancer to the greenhouse effect. It is all among us and but we continue to live in our own filth. What is the reason behind this flawed logic? In this paper I will examine the problems and solutions for this issue.

Automobiles are undeniable the greatest source of pollution. The noise pollution created by cars is immense. Another polluting effect of cars is the heat it creates. This heat makes it unpleasant to be near the car while its running. And of course the most famous of the automobiles evils is the exhaust. The toxic fumes given off as a byproduct of the combustion engine are slowly deteriorating our lungs and our atmosphere. The exhaust is extremely toxic to human beings. But why do we do continue to drive these walking time bombs. Some people will say it is progress, but the majority drives it for the convenience. Why walk four miles in four hours when you can drive the same miles in four minutes?
Another popular source of waste is the post-consumer market. American citizens throw away millions of tons of garbage each year, and this trash has to go somewhere. While there are projects underway to clean and reuse this refuse most of it gets dumped into huge landfills. These landfills are disgusting festering blisters on our country’s landscape. But people continue to consume and throw away more and more in the name of convenience. As they see it, when things get old, throw it away and get a new one. They blame the government for the trash problem, but the truth blame should be placed on themselves.

The last great source of pollution lays in the businesses. Although not common, businesses have been known to dump their waste products into streams, lakes, and rivers. This may seem like a relatively small occurrence that really is not your concern, but you’re wrong. Each time one of these companies pollutes there are horrible consequences to pay. Mutations, destroyed ecosystems, and human death have all occurred as a direct result of illegal dumping. It contaminates our drinking water and soil. It causes entire communities of humans (not to mention animals) to move on to new places not to return for at least a century. The pollutants dumped by industry are so concentrated that a single barrel can destroy an entire lake’s ecosystem. Not only do companies dump chemicals, but also hot water. This hot water kills most life it comes into contact with, but also causes an overgrowth of algae that covers the surface of the lake, or pond, and blocks the light from reaching the bottom. This means the plant life cannot grow, which mean the small bacteria and other microorganisms can’t grow which means fish can’t feed which means the ecosystem dies.

Pollution like any other problem can be solved, but this is a long process. Individuals can do their part to save the environment as well as themselves. Instead of driving, carpool, take the bus or any other method of mass transit. This will cut down on pollution made by cars each year, not to mention your gas bill. When it comes to the trash problem, take the time to sort your trash and place it in the appropriate recycling bins. By recycling we reduce the amount of waste piled onto the landfills. As for consumption, pay attention to how the products you buy are manufactured and how they are packaged. Avoid those products made in ‘unfriendly’ ways towards our mother earth. If a product encourages the destruction of land, or is of completely no use don’t buy it. And finally voice your opinion in the polls. If each individual did their part, we will be creating a better world for ourselves as well as our children.


Bibliography:

The Client

In writing the Crime novel The Client, John Grisham has quite effectively intertwined the plot, characters, themes and issues to create a dramatic and suspenseful story. To do this he creates strong interesting characters along with an in depth storyline to lure the reader in. John Grisham raises important themes and issues in all his novels, this story raises such issues as suicide and corruption. In The Client we are faced with rather rough but also innocent young boy who is suddenly thrown into a complicated circle of lies, murder and revenge all because he was in the wrong place at the wrong time.


The incredible plot John Grisham has accumulated to complete the electrifying story of The Client first starts with a capturing opening chapter. Grisham sets the scene with two young brothers, Mark and Ricky Sway, going off into the bushland near their home, the trailer park to experiment with a few cigarettes. After no more than three pages into the first chapter the action begins. Grisham effectively but also hastily sets the setting to the story then, to draw in the reader, explodes into the main event of the story, Romeys suicide. Grisham has a amazing method of writing to make the reader feel part of the happening action. “Mark stared at the wild, glowing face just inches away. The eyes were red and wet. Fluids dripped from the nose and chin. you little bastard he growled through clenched, dirty teeth.”
As the story unfolds the plot thickens. Jerome Clifford, the man who committed suicide was well known as at the time of the suicide. He was representing a Mafia member called Barry Muldanno in court for a high profile murder case. Grisham slowly provides us with more information throughout the story about who exactly Jerome was and his connections with the Mafia. Shortly after Marks encounter with Romey another character enters the story. Reggie Love is hired by Mark to be his lawyer. Reggie becomes involved quickly with Marks case, becoming a second mother to him. Reggie is a tough woman who is willing to fight all the way to get Mark out of any harm which he is obviously in. Although Reggie is a lawyer she also doubles as a detective as she searches into a dangerous arena of lies and corruption.


The story winds up with a fast and exciting ending. Reggie and Mark team up to go and find the so called body which is meant to be buried at Romeys home. Barry Muldanno and his Mafia mates are also pursuing the body. Grisham brings the story to a winding end when Mark Sway tells the court everything that Romey told him in the car and Reggie tells them where they can find the body. Mark and his family are hastily flown away and kept under the witness protection program.


John Grisham uses a very similar format for all his famous crime novels. Firstly he creates very strong and individual characters, in this case we follow the character of Mark Sway who intrigues the reader right at the beginning of the story with his rebellious and outspoken nature. Mark has very determined and controlling personality that we notice very quickly in the story. In the opening pages of the novel when mark tries to rescue the man in the car from gassing himself, Mark yells to Ricky, his younger brother “were not leaving until I say were leaving!”
Reggie Love is another vital character in the development of this story. Reggie is not your usual kind of lawyer in any way, firstly she is a woman, which is quite extraordinary, secondly she is very powerful and competent at that. Grisham constructed Reggies character to support Mark Sways lead role in the story, in doing this he had to make sure the two characters personalities would complement each other. In some ways Reggie and Mark are quite alike, their stubborn and resolute natures. In chapter nine of the novel where Mark was being interrogated by the FBI and several lawyers without his mother present, we observe Reggies truly amazing confrontation. “Its all right here on tape, fellas. You boys attempted to interrogate a child outside the presence of his mother.” Reggie has a great deal of confidence in herself to be working in such a male dominated position, she always comes out way ahead of Roy Foltrigg the federal Prosecutor.


John Grishams character of Barry the Blade Muldanno, The murderer of a United States Senator, adds a great tension to the story as he and his Mafia associates hold the driving force behind the main plot line. Barry Muldanno pursues Mark and his family with great vigour when he finds out that Mark may hold information as to where the body is hidden. For the continuation of the story the character of Barry Muldanno is responsible for providing the plot line with added suspense and thrill. In one particular excerpt mark is suddenly confronted and threatened by a man in an elevator holding a knife to his throat. “If you repeat a single word of it to anyone, including your lawyer, Ill kill you. And Ill kill your mother and your little brother.” There are several other sections in the novel simular to this one, which Grisham has used to heighten the level of thrill for the reader.


In the story, there are many themes and issues addressed, some more noticeable than others. Grisham uses some of these to further enhance the suspense throughout the novel. Suicide is confronted right at the beginning of the story when Jerome Clifford takes his own life. Jerome was in fear of his life feeling scared and frightened, thinking suicide was the only way out for him. There is much corruption and Mafia activities at play, mob members using high levels of power to intimidate Mark. Reggie finds it quite difficult to gain trust between her and Mark, Mark is afraid to trust anyone especially lawyers. Grisham enables Mark and Reggie to slowly build trust and friendship into their relationship which helps them to work as a team. Alcoholism torments both Reggie and Marks families, Mark loosing his father and Reggie loosing her precious children. Mark is very angry about his father and Reggie is upset and distraught that her husband could betray her in such a way. Both characters share a lot of the same emotions which builds a link between them both.


John Grisham has written a very involving plot line following the story of an innocent young boy who knows to much and his lawyer who will fight right until the very end. Grisham seems to write his stories in a special way, using strong emotional characters and captivating themes to make us feel a part of the drama and suspense throughout the entire novel.

Benjamin Spock

“Dr.Benjamin Spock, hailed as the grandfather of pediatrics, is known as the
leading authority on child rearing.” (Gale 1997) Dr. Benjamin Spock was born on May 2
1903 in New Haven Connecticut, The oldest of six children of a lawyer. Spock attended
Yale university, where he became a member of the Yale rowing crew that won the gold
metal at the 1924 Olympic games in Paris. Spock planned to pursue a career in
architecture, but changed his mind after spending a summer as a camp counselor. From
that point on he decided to become a doctor so that he could devote his life to helping
children.
From there on , Dr. Spock has been know as the authority on how to raise a child.
Spock has written over 12 books on the subjects pertaining to child development and
care. His first book Baby and Child Care published in 1945, has since sold more than
40 million copies., making it second only to the bible sales worldwide. The book has
also been translated into 39 different languages.


Not only is Spock known for being a great pediatrician and author, but he is
known as a political activist as well. Spock was a high-profile political activist in the
1960’s. Spock came under fire from critics like Vice president Spiro Agnew in the
1960’s who branded him “The father of permissiveness” responsible for a generation of
hippies. Spock joined those youths in protests against nuclear technology and the
Vietnam war and in 1967 led a march on the Pentagon. He was arrested numerous times
for civil disobedience, and even ran for U.S. president as a candidate for the people’s
party in 1972.


Dr. Spock’s last contribution to this society came out in 1994 in the form of his
last book. A Better World For Our Children, which contained recommendations for
making America a better and healthier place. This book was published when he was 91
years of age. Spock was quoted as saying “I’ve slowed down a lot .. It took me almost
five years to write this book” to the Detroit Free Press. “But I’m still very concerned with
the health of children and the need for more good day care and better schools.” Dr. Spock
died in San Diego with his family, cause unknown.

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Discrimination Against The Elderly

Discrimination against the Elderly
American society has been described as maintaining a stereotypic and often negative perception of older adults. This negative and/or stereotypic perception of aging and aged individuals is apparent in such areas as language, media, and humor. For example, such commonly used phrases as over the hill and an old fart denote old age as a period of impotency and incompetence. The term used to describe this stereotypic and often negative bias against older adults is ageism. Ageism can be defined as “any attitude, action, or institutional structure, which subordinates a person or group because of age or any assignment of roles in society purely on the basis of age”(Webster 25). As an ism, ageism reflects a prejudice in society against older adults. The victims of bigotry and prejudice are generally referred to as minorities. This is not because they are necessarily fewer in number, but because they are deprived of the rights and privileges of the majority (the Aged 4).
Ageism, however, is different from other isms (sexism, racism etc.), for primarily two reasons. First, age classification is not static. An individual’s age classification changes as one progresses through life. Therefore, age classification is characterized by continual change, while the other classification systems traditionally used by society such as race and gender remain constant. From this we can conclude that denial of old age is a principal source of bigotry against those who are old now (the Aged 4). Second, no one is exempt from at some point achieving the status of old. Unless they die at an early age, they will experience ageism. The later is an important distinction as ageism can affect an individual on two levels. First, the individual may be ageist with respect to others. That is they may stereotype other people on the basis of age. Second, the individual may be ageist with respect to self so ageist attitudes may affect the self-concept.
We live in a culture that reveres youth. To be young is to be alive, sexy, and full of energy. To be old is to be “senile,” “worthless,” and having “one foot in the grave”(Online 1). This is the attitude most often seen in modern society. In general there are at least nine known major stereotypes that reflect prejudice towards senior citizens. These include illness, impotency, ugliness, mental decline, mental illness, uselessness, isolation, poverty and depression(Ageism 20). This discrimination allows the rest of us to separate ourselves from older people and view them as less than fully human(Online 1).So how old is old? Where do we draw the line? Well, around the 1900s in the United States old age began in ones thirties because the life expectancy was about forty-seven. In todays society most younger people define old age as somewhere in the sixties. When people get into their sixties, however, they define old as ten years older than me (Discrimination 6). When it comes to employment old age, there is a slight difference, especially when jobs are tight. Ageism may start at age forty-five or even younger. Companies can usually cut costs by replacing top older workers with younger, cheaper employees. Once fired, workers over the age of forty-five often face permanent employment because of todays ever-changing technology(Discrimination 14). This form of ageism has come to be referred to as economic ageism.
Research on ageism has come a long way. It is still relatively problematic, however. The use of primarily younger populations to study ageism represents a problem with ageism research. The bulk of ageism research utilizes children, adolescents, or young adults as subjects and examines their perception of older adults. Only a small amount of studies have examined the views of the population whom the construct affects most, older adults. Those studies, which have used an older subject population, have unfortunately used mainly institutionalized individuals as subjects. As a result, they do not represent the vast majority of older adults.
Another problem with much of ageism research is that it only examines the negative stereotypes of old age. More recent studies have suggested that while attitudes toward the aged are increasingly positive, they are still stereotypic. Therefore, ageism has been expanded to include positive stereotypic images. Elders have made substantial gains in status. Critics have recently begun to declare that various programs and services for seniors only have become positive ageism. However, this is rarely acknowledged, much less studied(Ageism 17).
Two additional problems are mainly theoretical in nature. First, ageism research rarely examines or attempts to understand the causes of ageism. So, while much theoretical work has been conducted concerning the factors contributing to ageism, little experimental research has been conducted in this area. Second, ageism research rarely examines the interaction between ageism and other isms. As many individuals are in a position to experience more than one prejudice, the interaction between these prejudices needs to be examined. For instance when ageism is combined with sexism, it is called double jeopardy. The term for ageism, sexism, and racism collectively against one person is triple jeopardy(Ageism 11).

Ageism, along with every other prejudice, is an appalling subject to face. It is not just going to go away. Great advancements toward ending ageism have been made in the United States. Congress passed a bill called the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, which prevents people from getting fired for being too old. Various groups such as the American Association of Retired Persons have been formed to fight for senior citizen rights. Life expectancy has risen thirty years in the past century. Since 1960, there has been a 100 percent increase in those over the age of sixty-five and a 274 percent increase of those over eighty-five. The so-called baby boom generation, those Americans born in the 1950s are seventy-six million strong and will make up sixteen percent of the population in at least ten states by 2020(the Aged 251). It is expected that the life expectancy will exceed 100 by the end or the twenty-first century. That is just something to think about. We have no choice but to deal with the ageing process as individuals. With all this in mind, I believe the following quote sums up the entire paper and my values instilled in me as a younger person. We are all growing older, every day. Which means, if you live long enough, someday you too, are going to be a senior citizen. That’s why it makes a lot of sense to approach everyone you meet with kindness and respect, no matter what their age. We all have something to contribute and when we look beyond labels, we include people of all ages within the circle of our community. That way all of us become richer as we share in each other’s life experiences(Online 1).

Works Cited
Dickman, Irving R. Ageism-Discrimination Against Older
People. Public Affairs Committee, 1979.

Falk, Gerhard. Ageism, The Aged and Ageing in America.
Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publisher,
Ltd., 1997.
Guralnik, David B. Ed. Websters New World Dictionary. New
York: The World Publishing Company, 1970.

Justice Now: Ageism. Online.
http://www.talkcity.com/theinsite/justice/ageism.html.

1997-1999.
Palmore, Erdman B. Ageism Negative and Positive. New York:
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Management 410-500 Midterm

Question #4
Matthew Humphrey
The two most fundamental categories of stock in a new business are
common stock and preferred stock, which differ in the rights that they
confer upon their owners. But stocks can also be classified according to a
number of other criteria, including company size and company sector. I will
describe the different types of stocks that are available and the important
characteristics of each of them.

Most shares of stock are called “common shares”. If you own a share of
common stock, then you are a partial owner of the company. You are also
entitled to certain voting rights regarding company matters. Typically,
common stock shareholders receive one vote per share to elect the company’s
board of directors. The board of directors is the group of individuals
that represents the owners of the corporation and oversees major decisions
for the company. Common stock shareholders also receive voting rights
regarding other company matters such as stock splits and company
objectives.

In addition to voting rights, common shareholders sometimes enjoy what
are called “preemptive rights.” Preemptive rights allow common shareholders
to maintain their proportional ownership in the company in the event that
the company issues another offering of stock. This means that common
shareholders with preemptive rights have the right but not the obligation
to purchase as many new shares of the stock as it would take to maintain
their proportional ownership in the company.

But although common stock entitles its holders to a number of
different rights and privileges, it does have one major drawback: common
stock shareholders are the last in line to receive the company’s assets.

This means that common stock shareholders receive dividend payments only
after all preferred shareholders have received their dividend payments. It
also means that if the company goes bankrupt, the common stock shareholders
receive whatever assets are left over only after all creditors,
bondholders, and preferred shareholders have been paid in full.

The other fundamental category of stock is preferred stock. Like
common stock, preferred stock represents partial ownership in a company,
although preferred stock shareholders do not enjoy any of the voting rights
of common stockholders. Also unlike common stock, preferred stock pays a
fixed dividend that does not fluctuate, although the company does not have
to pay this dividend if it lacks the financial ability to do so. The main
benefit to owning preferred stock is that you have a greater claim on the
company’s assets than common stockholders. Preferred shareholders always
receive their dividends first and, in the event the company goes bankrupt,
preferred shareholders are paid off before common stockholders. In general,
there are four different types of preferred stock:
. Cumulative: These shares give their owners the right to “accumulate”
dividend payments that were skipped due to financial problems; if the
company later resumes paying dividends, cumulative shareholders
receive their missed payments first.

. Non-Cumulative: These shares do not give their owners back payments
for skipped dividends.

. Participating: These shares may receive higher than normal dividend
payments if the company turns a larger than expected profit.

. Convertible: These shares may be converted into a specified number of
shares of common stock.

Since preferred shares carry fixed dividend payments, they tend to
fluctuate in price far less than common shares. This means that the
opportunity for both large capital gains and large capital losses is
limited.

At the beginning stages of businesses it is better to issue stock
outright rather than to use stock options. Stock can be issued for little
cost and thereby provide the founders certain benefits of direct stock
ownership and avoid some of the drawbacks of stock options. One important
difference between stocks and options is that stocks give you a small piece
of ownership in the company while options are just contracts that give you
the right to buy or sell the stock at a specific price by a specific date.

None Provided41

Throughout history, the powers of love and hate have constantly been engaged in a battle for superiority. Time and time again, love has proven to be stronger than hate, and has been able to overcome all of the obstacles that have stood in the way from it reaching its goal. On certain occasions, though, hate has been a viable foe and defeated love when they have clashed. In the novel A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens presents several different power struggles between love and hate.

One of the more famous power struggles takes place between Miss Pross and Madame Defarge, towards the end of the novel. When Madame Defarge, who because of her evil nature and devilish appearance is compared to “the wife of Lucifer”, appears at the Manettes’ residence to accuse the remaining members of the household of ridiculous crimes, she is confronted by Miss Pross. The result is a struggle between these two magnificent women, who are complete opposites of each other: “It was in vain for Madame Defarge to struggle and to strike; Miss Pross, with the vigorous tenacity of love, always so much stronger than hate, clasped her tight” (p. 360). Miss Pross loves Lucie with all her heart and would never allow any harm to come to her. Madame Defarge, on the other hand, does not just hate Lucie, but she hates the Manettes and all Evremondes. One would think that such a strongly fueled hatred would permit Madame Defarge to overpower Miss Pross, but, as the reader finds out, Miss Pross’ determination to keep her darling “Ladybird” safe, from any harm that might come to her or her family, allows her to overpower and kill her enemy. This time, the power of good overcomes the power of evil due to Miss Pross’ true love and dedication for Lucie.
Another struggle between love and hate can be found within Monsieur Defarge. In this particular case, it is evil that eventually triumphs. Monsieur Defarge can be considered a true revolutionary, as his actions prove throughout the novel: ” and still Defarge of the wine – shop at his gun, grown doubly hot by the service of four fierce hours” (p. 215). Monsieur Defarge tirelessly works alongside his fellow revolutionaries to defeat the aristocracy that has treated his countrymen so harshly. His commitment to the French Revolution gives him grounds to support the death of Charles Darnay, but, unlike his wife, Monsieur Defarge shows love for his friend, Doctor Manette, and his friend’s family. He does not want to see any of them, except for Charles Darnay, harmed or executed. Even before the French Revolution begins, Monsieur Defarge wishes that it will not involve Doctor Manette and his family: “- and if it does come while we live to see it triumph – I hope, Destiny will keep them Darnay and the Manettes out of France” (p.186). The struggle between love and hate that exists here is Monsieur Defarge trying to find a way to stay loyal to both his countrymen and his friend. Defarge chooses to try and persuade his wife to just let the Manettes go, since they have not actually committed any crimes. When Monsieur Defarge’s attempts at trying to change his wife’s mind fail, he simply gives up and does not even try to save the Manettes in any other way. Senior Defarge is influenced so much by his surroundings that he starts to believe that there is no way he can help his friend. Because of this Monsieur Defarge ends his dilemma the easy way – by not doing anything.

In today’s society, the power struggles between good and evil, and love and hate has almost always been balanced. Like the day and the night, or the yin and the yang; love and hate, and good and evil have found a way to peacefully coexist in today’s world. Although sometimes the power is unequal, the balance is usually quickly restored and only minimal damage results from this unbalance.
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