Manhattan Thirties Flash

The poem Manhattan Thirties Flash is exactly what the title states. It is a quick description of Manhattan in the 1930’s. The author, Allen Ginsberg (1926-1997) was a well-known firebrand, Ginsberg was a leader of the “beat movement” of the 1950’s and of the cultural and political protests of the 1960’s. He often writes about spiritual survival in a dehumanized, repressive society. You can see the dehumanization throughout the poem for example in line one when Ginsberg writes, “repetitive machine Crash cookie-cutting.” When he says, “repetitive,” this lets you know that the same thing is being done over and over again, like it is a program. “Cookie-cutting,” says that there is a template and it is being mass produced. Line two and three state, “dynamo rows of soulless replica Similitudes brooding tank-like in Army Depots.” The mention of the tank-like Army Depots means that what he sees is just an area filled with orderly components. Then again in line four, “exactly the same exactly the same exactly the same with no ..” Not only is Ginsberg directly telling you that there is no variation, but by him repeating, “exactly the same,” he further pushes his views. In line six, “overwhelming force of robot obsession, our slaves are not alive,” by him saying robot obsession he means that people are being forced into this dehumanized environment, and that we are just slaves of society. Once again in line nine, “crowds of executive secretaries alighting from subway 8:30 A.M.,” one could clearly see that by stating this, Ginsberg wants you to see how we are part of a system, a repetitive system. He leads you to believe that these secretaries exit the subways every day at the same time, although he never states that.

When examining the punctuation, you notice in lines one through three that there are several words unusually capitalized. The words are Crash, Similitudes, and Army Depots. They signify a central theme that these comparisons of society are perfectly arranged. The comparisons are of society and how it is ultimately a machine. In lines ten and eleven, “bloodflow in cells thru elevator arteries & stairway glands to typewriter consciousness,” Ginsberg uses the text to resemble an analogy. Bloodflow in cells is to elevator arteries as stairway glands is to typewriter consciousness. Finally, he mentions the Con Ed skyscraper in line twelve. This random insertion of a company’s name means that we are a slave to the systematic society. A society controlled by businesses but run by men.

The crusaders and muslims in palestine

Crusaders and Muslims in Palestine
Throughout time, history has had a tendency to repeat itself. It has done so in good means as well as bad. People learn from the past and apply it to their every day lives. Although people try to do the right thing and not follow mistakes that have been already made, they just seem to come about. Today, our country is experiencing a situation that is extremely similar to the situation occurred in 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. Crusades now can be defined as well all wars undertaken in pursuance of a vow and directed against infidels. Back in the middle ages, it was known as any military expedition undertaken by the Christians of Europe. The history of the crusades is filled with the mercilessness of the crusaders and the kind-heartedness of the Muslims. The Muslims were massacred everywhere the crusaders arrived, while the Christians were treated kindly by the Muslims. The Christians and the Muslims were fighting against one another in order to spread their religion, or end the other.
The event leading up to the start of the holy wars was the invasions of the Holy Land, Jerusalem. Jerusalem was a holy site for the Christians as well as the Muslims. For the Christians, it was a sacred place because Jesus was crucified and on the site where his body was placed in a tomb. They built a church of Holy Sepulchure which stands of the hill where Christ was believed to have been crucified, died, buried, and where he rose again. For the Muslims, this place was cared because they believed that the founder of their religion, Muhammad, was able to visit heaven from there. For that reason, they built many masques and the most famous one is the Dome of the Rock. Islam was spreading very fast. Europe’s greatest threat came from the forces of Islam. These threats became real. Battles broke out and these battles turned to wars that lasted from 1095 to 1229. These years of bloodshed were led by men of power to gain control over the Holy Land of Jerusalem. Jerusalem was extremely important to the Muslims and Christians at this time. Many religious events had happened there, and many of the landmarks of both religions were located in Jerusalem. It was all over for one city, Jerusalem the Holy Land. At first, Christians occupied Jerusalem. The Christian people head out from giving up their land to their invaders, the Muslims. In February of 638, the Christian bishop of Jerusalem, Sophronus, was forced to surrender the city. By the 11th century, the balance of power began to swing toward the West. The Church became more centralized and stronger. Europe’s population was growing, its urban life was beginning to revive, and both long distance and local trade were gradually increasing. A growing population created more wealth that meant a greater demand from elsewhere. The interests coincided with religious feeling about the Holy Land and so the crusades began. The Muslims treated Christians well at fist. They just thought of them as people who were misguided in their choice of religion. They encouraged them to convert to Islam, but never forced them. The Christians who did not convert were than known as mawali meaning brother of Islam. Those who did not convert were called djimmis meaning the protected people. Even thought the Christian people were able to keep their religion, they had to take certain rules that came along with that. They had to pay extra tax called jizya, as well as having to abide by extra rules such as not being allowed to marry a Muslim, or to own arms or horses. They were allowed to keep their churches. At this point of time, Europe was in what is known as the Middle Ages of the Dark Ages. This is when the land was separated by manors. All the neighboring manors would be in wars with each other. Each lord was trying to gain more land. Pope Urban II, in a speech of Clermont in France in November 1095, called for a great Christian expedition to free Jerusalem from the Turks, a new Muslim power that had recently begun actively harassing peaceful Christian pilgrims traveling to Jerusalem. Urban’s speech appealed to thousands of people of all classes. This started the first crusade.

The appeal for soldiers to fight for Jerusalem was very successful. Great nobles, clergy and peasants from all over Europe began preparing for the trip. Most of the people who were going were going for the most important reason, a religious reason. They thought that God had wanted them to. The Crusaders mission was to regain Jerusalem from the holiest ground of the Christian faith from the grasp of the Muslims. The official crusading armies did not head of the long journey until the middle of 1096. There were three main bands from Northern France, Southern France, and Southern Italy. The crusading army arrived in Byzantium over a period of several months early in 1097. Throughout their trip to Palestine, they committed horrible things like raping, murdering, and plundering Jews and Muslims. As they traveled to Jerusalem, they came upon many wars with other Turkish lands as well as lands occupied by Jews. As they marched east, they were joined by thousands of men and even women, ranging from petty knights and their families, to peasants seeking freedom from their ties to the manor. Few people knew what to expect. They all had one goal, to retake the Holy Land. When the Christians finally reached Jerusalem, the crusader army settled down to the business of conducting the siege. Led by priests chanting and holding their sacred relics in front of them, the entire army marched in slow solemn procession barefoot around Jerusalem. Six days after they marched into Jerusalem, the final assault began. More than a day of continuous fighting, the Crusaders forced their way into the city. After almost two months, Jerusalem fell. Crusaders swarmed into the city and killed more than 60.000 Muslim and Jewish inhabitants (Smith, 105). First Crusade was successful and it reinforced the authority of the Church and straightened the self-confidence of Western Europeans. Unfortunately, with victory came new problems. Many Crusaders saw the taking of Jerusalem as the goal; they were ready to go home. To keep the city safe for Christians and prevent Muslims from taking control again many Crusaders stayed behind and established the Christian states just like the ones in West Europe. They hoped to transplant their military. The Christian Knights who went to live in the Middle East found out that the people there had a different way of life. They ate different foods. They dressed in different clothes. The Christians and Muslims were not only living together in the Middle East but also in Spain and Sicily too (Norman, 66). In addition, one of the Crusaders greatest achievements was the opening of the eastern Mediterranean to European shopping. They established trading colonies in Egypt. Eastern connections opened Europe to a brighter understanding of optimistic ways of living and thinking. The biggest difference between Christians and Muslims is religion. Religion has always been a big issue. It always had a big impact on all people and there were many wars fought over the religion. Similarity that I have noticed is that both sides were warriors of God. Both sides fought for their religion and their beliefs. I do not think that Crusaders made a mistake by going into the war to free Jerusalem because they belong to Jerusalem as much as Muslims do. Neither Christians nor Muslims should forbid each other to be in Jerusalem because that place is very special to both sides. If Jerusalem were so important to both the Muslims and Christians of course, they would fight to keep it or gain control of it. The crusaders achieved the main purpose of the crusades and kept Jerusalem for a while, but the spirit of the people seen before the first crusade took place was never matched again. Later all of the cities taken by the Christians were to be taken back by the Muslims
In conclusion, the crusades were a very important part of European history that really affects the world. These people fought for what they believed in and, maybe, if they had not fought for what they believed in, we should practice Islam instead of Christianity. Though many people lost their lives and times were tough, balance of power was up for grabs, and it went on for so long, the crusades were fought over the Holy Land to preserve and protect the aspects of each side’s religion. The first three crusades show the best, how important they were to everyone and how they could have affected the world today. The First Crusade made people think that is possible for Christian crusaders to control the Middle East. Two hundred years after that, it was clear to them that it was not actually a possibility.

The Hungarian Edition Of Cosmopolitan

Primarily based on an interview with Ms. Eniko Horvath, marketing manager of Cosmopolitan Hungary, this case study outlines the historical background of Cosmopolitan international editions and the peculiarities of the Hungarian version. The first issue brought about a revolution in the general approach of womens magazines in Hungary; Cosmopolitan immediately reached a leading market position that it still holds today. The paper discusses the layout and content of the magazine in an attempt to thoroughly describe this product. It illustrates some patterns of the magazine in terms of sales, number of subscribers and number of copies given out freely for promotional purposes. The pricing policy and the promotion mix adopted by Cosmopolitan as parts of its overall marketing strategy, are presented as well. We conclude that Cosmopolitan is a successful business in todays glossy magazines market in Hungary, since each upcoming issue is impatiently awaited by thousands of readers each month.

In Hungary the first magazines for women were published in the middle of the 19th Century. In the name of emancipation, Hungarian women demanded more womens magazines, fashion and beauty-care products. At that moment there were around 1,500 magazines on the market and their advertisements were mainly done through first-class fashion salons.

After World War I, the so-called feminine press started to fade away and cultural magazines slowly took over. During the socialist era, a new type of magazines appeared on the Hungarian market and remained dominant for 40 years. One of them is still among the leading Hungarian magazines for women and is called Nok Lapja. After it’s very first issue in 1949, it was declared to be a good, useful and essential magazine for honest, hard-working Hungarian women and remained so until the 1960’s, when it also incorporated some elements of the Western culture.

The economical and political changes which occurred in the past 10 years deeply affected the magazines market. The feminine press made a tremendous comeback, giving birth to newcomers and forcing old magazines to change. At present one can find more than 50 magazines dedicated to women readers. Some of them deal with so-called women issues in general, whereas some specialize in fashion, cooking, needlework and home decorating.
In a market economy, magazines are like any other product, says Andrea Eszes, editor of Cosmopolitan. And products targeting women can make big profits in Hungary. If we just compare how much is spent on advertising each year in Hungary with the budget of the Ministry of Culture or that of the Ministry of National Defense, there is no wonder that this market is a primary business target for investors.

The future holds fine prospects to these international glossy magazines that are published all over the world and combine some common characteristics with specific cultural elements of the host countries. But as they emerge and leave cultural magazines behind, they will bear the increasing responsibility of correcting the language usage and promoting visual culture to the public.

Cosmopolitan was founded in 1886 as a magazine for first-class families in the U.S. William Randolph Hearst acquired the magazine in 1905. In the middle of the century sales dropped and the management decided to change the concept of the magazine. Ever since, the Cosmopolitan concept – the magazine is for young women interested in fashion, beauty, career and sex has been alive. Helen Gurley Brown, who was appointed Editor in Chief in 1965, approached the idea of Cosmopolitan as a magazine for ambitious, career-conscious young women and even wrote a feminist best-seller.

Today there are 37 international editions, making Cosmopolitan the largest selling young womens magazine in the whole world. It has an average of nearly 7 million buyers universally and more than 33 million readers per month. This gives Cosmopolitan the status of the first international first-class magazine.
The Hungarian edition of Cosmopolitan was launched in November 1997, in accordance with the agreement between Hearst Corporation/VNU and Erasmus Press Publishing House.
Cosmopolitan is a glossy monthly magazine for women. It has a strong and internationally approved concept, which is tailored for each edition based on specific national characteristics. A visually stimulating magazine, Cosmopolitan speaks the universal language of women everywhere. Cosmopolitan envisions itself as a friend, thus informing, giving advice and offering support to young women in a friendly and personal manner. Its impossible dream is to become a lifestyle, to inspire readers to enhance their living patterns and the relationships they enjoy. Cosmopolitan adopts a positive attitude; it is supportive, trendy and imaginative. The Hungarian edition is based on the original U.S. concept bearing in mind the special interests of Hungarian readers.

The target group of Cosmopolitan comprises young women between 18 and 35 years old, from the A and B social classes, with middle and high income and living in big cities. They are independent-minded, interested in career and quite sociable. Their interests include beauty, fashion, relationships, love and sex. The Cosmo-woman is self-conscious, is striving to achieve more and wants support and encouragement on how to solve her problems. There are around 389,000 women in this demographic category in Hungary.

At present, Cosmopolitan enjoys a monopoly position on the glossy magazines market in Hungary; since November last year, when it was launched here, the only potential competitor has been the German-based magazine Joy; however, Joy is a conceptually different product that addresses dissimilar issues and thus does not constitute direct competition for Cosmopolitan. This favorable position is translated in an opportunity for Cosmopolitan to turn its readers into faithful consumers in the future. Actually, the premier goal of the Cosmopolitan staff at the moment is to increase of the current average sales volume from around 60,000 to 63,000 units per issue in an attempt to increase the market share.
In addition, Cosmopolitan in sold in the whole country, which enables a very good identification and accessing of its target group. Market researches have revealed that more than 60% of its readers are between 18 and 24 years old, whereas 30% of them are males.

A potential threat for the magazine will be the increasing competition from other publications to be launched in the near future in Hungary. However, the editorial staff of Cosmopolitan believe other magazines will create a healthy competitive environment, which will ultimately result in better product quality and communication, thus increasing consumer satisfaction.

An essential strength lies in the brand image of Cosmopolitan. The targeted readers regard it as a very high-quality product which totally differs from other magazines. It has far more pages, excellent pictures featuring international top-models, and entertaining articles. However, the main weakness of this product is its cost structure; production costs are too high in relation to the viable level of a magazines price on the Hungarian market and Cosmopolitan could not even afford a cost-based pricing strategy if it wanted to stay competitive in terms of price.
At present, Cosmopolitan does not have an Internet web-site for the Hungarian edition.

The launch of international glossy magazines in Hungary was not possible before 1989, therefore the political changes played a significant role in allowing the opening of the newspaper and magazine markets. Due to economic growth, the increasing purchasing power of the population made the Hungarian market an attractive outlet in terms of potential demand for such products. Changes at social level with regard to open-mindedness, career-orientation and eagerness to be trendy and fashionable, constituted additional benefits of this market. Finally, technological advances have allowed publishing houses to execute high-quality printing and produce aesthetically – accomplished products.
Each issue consistently includes four equally-sized editorial pillars: beauty, fashion, career and sex. In addition, the magazine includes articles of various lengths, which address issues of special interest to Hungarian readers. Short articles on celebrities, traveling, cooking, health & fitness and decoration are mainly to be found in the first and last few pages. Long articles (sometimes translated and adjusted to the Hungarian environment) build up the body of the magazine. The ratio of Hungarian to international articles is 50-50%. The fashion pillar features 2 fashion stories on 8 pages each. Both Hungarian and international models are used for the shootings: in the first year, 2 covers featured Hungarian models, whereas all the other covers were directly taken from the U.S. editions.
Since it was lunched, the structure of the magazine was not significantly altered due to its international status. Some minor changes have occurred in terms of layout and were determined by the ever-changing fashion and beauty trends. Occasionally, Hungarian-customized articles about celebrities, beauty products and fitness tips, are included. The Hungarian culture is not dominant in the magazine due to the fact that Cosmopolitans intention is to present international trends to Hungarian women.
The price of HUF 395 only covers production and distribution costs. Editorial and miscellaneous costs are supported by means of advertising in the pages of the magazine. Cosmopolitan is highly successful in offering advertising services due to its huge sales volume . In order to keep and even surpass the current market performance, the magazine must stay competitive in terms of price as well; thus, it cannot afford setting a much higher price and losing market share, because important advertisers require a minimum sales volume of 50,000 units per issue so that their ads have a good impact. Moreover, Cosmopolitan offers its advertisers the possibility to promote their products through samples attached to the pages of the magazine (e.g., fragrances, creams, skin foundations, small catalogues etc.). This enables advertisers to reach their target consumers even more effectively.

Cosmopolitan heavily relies on advertising: 60% of all promotional activities are above-the-line activities, whereas 40% take the form of sales promotion and public relations. Due to special characteristics of the target group, it is necessary that in addition to traditional communication channels (TV, radio, billboards), the product is promoted in cinema multiplexes, fitness clubs, beauty salons, hairdressers and restaurants. During an advertising campaign, the feedback from the target audience is evaluated in terms of increases in sales volume, above-the-line GRPs and through panel research. A successful advertising campaign is one that boosts demand and, in turn, sales.

Difficulties were encountered in the launch advertising campaign. The Consumers Protection Office sued Cosmopolitan for the outrageousness of its launch advertising posters; however, the magazine was exempted from paying a penalty fee in the end. This conflict came to the advantage of Cosmopolitan – which demonstrates the validity of the old saying negative publicity is good publicity.

Business-to-business marketing is an area of main concern for Cosmopolitan, which is also challenged with creating a favorable image to its business customers. The advantages offered by Cosmopolitan as an advertising medium itself are as follows:
it fills the existing gap of the glossy magazines in the advertising market;
its quality is guaranteed by the international background;
it has a well-defined target audience who tend to spend a lot of money and can afford the magazine;
its readers believe in Cosmopolitan;
it fits to premium quality products;
it has quality content, layout, paper and printing;
it offers the possibility for various creative units.

Cosmopolitan offers discounts on its advertising rates to important business customers, as well as creative possibilities for them to realize their advertisements, such as binding, sticking on a page, inserting, foiling and double covers (for more technical details about business-to-business marketing, see appendix).

Cosmopolitan organized a host promotion after its launch, whereby young men offered leaflets and brochures about Cosmopolitan to young women, with the purpose of convincing them to buy the magazine.
Additionally, a certain numbers of issues is given out for free to readers on a monthly bases. This also aims at increasing demand. The chart below reveals the patterns of free issues offered to potential readers as a promotional activity:
Persuading readers to subscribe and keeping current subscribers are also areas of major concern for Cosmopolitan. At this moment, the magazine has some 1,200 subscribers.
Cosmopolitan always has special offers for potential subscribers (they are either able to order a product through the magazine or buy it cheaper from the stores, they are offered extra gifts etc.). Readers do not seem to be very responsive to these initiatives, though . Yet, products advertised in Cosmopolitan are highly successful because of the powerfulness and persuasiveness the magazine emanates to its target consumers.

In accordance with other international glossy magazines, Cosmopolitan has organized a fashion show; on that occasion, it invited the TV stations, newspapers and numerous magazines in an attempt to get exposure in these specific channels. However, it is rather difficult for Cosmopolitan to get favorable reviews in other communication media, since all publications and audio-visual instruments are actually competing with each other for an ever-increasing number of consumers.
Cosmopolitan is considering sponsoring some beauty and modeling contests next year; it has not done it so far because of the negative image attached to this type of events in Hungary. Unlike other companies such as Coca~Cola and Procter&Gamble, Cosmopolitan has decided not to associate its name with these events yet.

An internationally famous glossy magazine, Cosmopolitan is a high-quality product with a clearly-defined brand image and a competitive pricing strategy. Its promotion mix is adequately tailored to persuade and maintain the loyalty of its customers. Our findings once again demonstrate that Cosmopolitan is a highly successful product with a well-defined target group and an increasing market share in Hungary as elsewhere in the world.
Technical details of the magazine:
FREQUENCY: monthly
FORMAT: 205 * 276 mm
PRINT TECHNIQUE: 4 color offset
PAPER QUALITY: 70 gr WC and 170 gr ART
TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES: between 132 and 164 pages
INTRODUCTION COVER PRICE (1st and 2nd issue): 350 HUF
Advertising rates:
Cover IV HUF 800,000
Cover II HUF 770,000
Cover III HUF 715,000
1/1 page HUF 550,000
1/2 page HUF 350,000
2-3 pages 2%
4-5 pages 4%
6-8 pages 6%
9-11 pages 8%
12-17 pages 10%
The above prices do not include 25%VAT.

Information: Erasmus Press Kiadoi Kft.

Advertising department
Address: 1134 Dosza Gyorgy ut 150
Phone: 361 2703457
Fax: 361 1403709
Business Essays

Group Collaboration Software

Of the Home Depot Co
Maurice Purvis
April 31, 2004

Group Collaboration Software of the Home Depot Company
To keep up with growth, Home Depot needed an information-management
framework that would let district managers’ access information more quickly
so they could make better decisions and function more autonomously. The
solution was also required to integrate data about sales, inventory, store
productivity, and staffing from proprietary programs operating on different
platforms. Finally, the Home Depot solution needed the flexibility to
enable partners, suppliers, and customers to take advantage of the new
system through an extranet.

Using Netscape software, Home Depot is deploying a variety of
applications to address these requirements. The first application, Virtual
District Office, puts up-to-date information at regional managers’
fingertips. No matter where they are, district managers with authorized
access can search personnel directories; use applications on Home Depot’s
network; and get dynamically updated store-performance reports, sales data,
labor hours, and inventory statistics published by Netscape Enterprise
Server – all in real time.

To monitor performance data, information is posted continually to a
central repository. This enables a salesperson at a store’s information
desk to tell a customer when a special order will arrive or whether another
store has a particular item. It also lets a vice president at corporate
headquarters in Atlanta check weekly sales for a certain district based on
virtually up to the minute data.

Netscape Directory Server provides the foundation for these
applications. Using the directory, Home Depot now has more control of
critical decision-making data yet requires less time and labor to keep
current. The central directory also helped speed development: The Virtual
District Office data-retrieval network was created in about six months by
just four developers.

In accordance to the directory providing the underlying infrastructure
for multiple applications, its performance, reliability, and flexibility
were critical selection criteria. For example, high performance was
necessary for the directory to service multiple applications across
hundreds of stores simultaneously. Reliability and high availability were
necessary because if the directory were to go down, all the applications
relying on it would also go down. Finally, the directory needed to be
flexible enough to adapt to the various demands and capabilities of
different users and applications. Directory Server allows us to set very
granular authorization levels. For example, associates in training can
reorder stock, but the transaction requires manager approval because of the
trainee designation in the directory.

The Home Depot based its application development on open Internet
standards, which increased the flexibility of the applications to enable
their eventual deployment over extranets. Using Java as the common
development language, made development significantly faster than when we
were developing in several languages. Because all the code now resides on
the server, deployment and maintenance are also much easier than with
traditional client-server applications. The GUI interface based on Java
makes applications easy to use, and make it easy for Home Depot to extend
parts of its intranet to an extranet for partners and customers outside the

The new centralized infrastructure and Virtual District Office
application allow Home Depot’s staff to make better decisions faster with
much less effort. The Virtual Office application decentralized,
dramatically improved management, and increased autonomy for managers. It
is now providing better support than ever for district managers and sales
staff. It also provides a foundation flexible enough to scale to new
requirements as the company continues to grow. In the next phase of the
project, Home Depot will work with Netscape Professional Services to
introduce self-service applications that customers can use in stores and on
the World Wide Web.

Presence of a God

Either God exists or He doesn’t. There is no middle ground. Any attempt to remain neutral in relation to God’s existence is automatically synonymous with unbelief. It is far from a “moot” question, for if God does exist, then nothing else really matters; if He does not exist, then nothing really matters at all. If He does exist, then there is an eternal heaven to be gained (Hebrews 11:16) and an eternal Hell to be avoided (Revelation 21:8). The question for God’s existence is an extremely important one. One might wonder why it is necessary to present evidence for the existence of God. As Edward Thomson so beautifully stated it: “…the doctrine of the one living and true God, Creator, Preserver, and Benefactor of the universe, as it solves so many problems, resolves so many doubts, banishes so many fears, inspires so many hopes, gives such sublimity to all things, and such spring to all noble powers, we might presume would, as soon as it was announced, be received by every healthy mind.” Some, however, contrary to their higher interests, have refused to have God in their knowledge and thus have become vain in their reasonings and foolish in their philosophy (Romans 1:21,22,28). They do not see the folly (Psalm 14:1) of saying there is no God. The Christian has not only the obligation to “give answer to every man that asketh you a reason concerning the hope that is in you…” (I Peter 3:15), but an obligation to carry the Gospel message to a lost and dying world (Mark 16:15-16, et al.). There will be times when carrying the Gospel message to the world will entail setting forth the case for the existence of God. In addition, we need to remember that Christians are not agnostics. The agnostic is the person who says that God’s existence is unknowable. As difficult as it is to believe, some Christians take that same stance in regard to God’s existence. They assert that they “believe” there is a God, but that they cannot know it. They state that God’s existence cannot be proved. ‘This is false!’ God’s existence is both ‘knowable’ and ‘provable.’ Acceptance of God’s existence is not some “blind leap into the dark” as so many have erroneously asserted. The Christian’s faith is not a purely emotional, subjective “leap,” but instead is a ‘firm conviction’ regarding facts based upon reasonable evidence. God’s existence can be proved to any fair-minded person. Granted, we do not mean by the word “proved” that God’s existence can be scientifically demonstrated to human senses as one might, for example, prove that a sack of potatoes weighs ten pounds. But we need to be reminded (especially in our day of scientific intimidation) that empirical evidence (that based solely upon experiment and/or observation) is not the only basis for establishing a provable case. Legal authorities recognize the validity of a ‘prima facie’ case. Such a case exists when adequate evidence is available to establish the presumption of a fact which, unless such can be refuted, ‘legally stands as a fact’. Inferential proof (the culmination of many lines of evidence into only one possible conclusion) is an invaluable part of a ‘prima facie’ case which simply cannot be refuted. But an important question which serves as a “preface” to the case for God’s existence is this: “From whence has come the idea of God in man’s mind?” The inclination to be religious is universally and peculiarly a human trait. As one writer observed, even today the evidence indicates that “no race or tribe of men, however degraded and apparently atheistic, lacks that spark of religious capacity which may be fanned and fed into a mighty flame.” If, therefore, man is incurably religious–and has the idea of God in his mind–and if we assume that the world is rational, it is impossible that a phenomenon so universal as religion could be founded upon illusion. The question is highly appropriate therefore: what is the source of this religious tendency within man? Alexander Campbell, in his celebrated debate April 13-23, 1829 in Cincinnati, Ohio with Robert Owen, provided the answer to this question in a very positive fashion. He asked Owen from whence the idea of God had come in man’s mind. Owen (and all skeptics) had (have) stated that the idea of God has not come from reason (skeptics hold, of course, that the concept is unreasonable), and that it has not come from revelation. Campbell pressed Owen to tell him from whence the idea of God ‘had’ come. Owen retorted, “by imagination.” Campbell then quoted both John Locke and David Hume, two philosophers who are highly respected in the secular community. Hume stated that the “creative power of the mind amounts to nothing more than the faculty of combining, transposing, augmenting and diminishing the materials afforded to us by sense and experience.” The imagination, it turns out, has ‘no creative power’. Neither reason nor imagination create. Reason, like a carpenter’s yardstick, is a measure, not an originator. Imagination works only on those items already in the mind; it does not “create” anything new. Sigmund Freud, German psychoanalyst of the first part of the 20th century, attempted to explain God’s existence by stating that man had indeed formed the “heavenly father” from the idea in his mind of his “earthly father.” But this idea will not suffice either. Is the God of the Bible the God man would “invent” if asked to do so? Hardly. Look around at the “god” man invents when left to his own devices–the “god” of hedonism, epicurianism, subjectivism, or the “god” of “if it feels good, do it.” The God of the Bible is not the God man would invent, if left to his own devices. Freud’s attempt to explain the idea of God in man’s mind failed miserably. Campbell pointed out to Owen, in a very forceful way, that the idea of God in man’s mind could only have come through revelation. There is no other choice. The concept of God, therefore, though greatly perverted in heathen hands, is ultimately traceable to an original communication between the Creator and the creature. There is no other alternative, all the disclaimers of the atheist notwithstanding. But suppose the unbeliever objects: “If the idea of God is basic to human nature, we would not be able to deny it; we do deny it, however; therefore it is not intuitive.” It is sufficient to observe in rebuttal to such a claim that man, under the enchantment of a deceptive philosophy, can deny the most obvious of things. Those deluded, for example, by “Christian Science” religion deny the existence of matter and death. Some today deny that the earth is spherical or that man has ever been to the moon. But a denial of facts does not automatically negate the facts. Man’s attitude toward Truth does not change Truth. Can God’s existence be proven? Can we ‘know’ God exists? The answer is a resounding “YES!” The psalmist said, “Be still and ‘know’ that I am God” (Psalm 46:10) as he echoed the Creator’s sentiments to man. The allusions to th e manifestations of Deity in the created world are profuse. David exclaimed, “O Jehovah, our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth, Who has set thy glory upon the heavens?” (Psalm 8:1). In the same psalm, the inspired writer was constrained to say that the heavens are “the work of thy fingers” and the moon and stars “thou hast ordained” (Psalm 8:3). Later David was to utter the beautiful words of Psalm 19:1–“The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth his handiwork.” Isaiah graphically portrayed the majesty and power of nature’s God when he wrote that God “hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, and meted out heaven with a span, and comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance” (40:12). Dr. E.A. Maness once remarked, “If the word God were written upon every blowing leaf, embossed on every passing cloud, engraved on every granite rock, the inductive evidence of God in the world would be no stronger than it is.” John C. Monsma, in the text which he edited entitled, ‘The Evidence of God in an Expanding Universe’ (which is a compilation of testimony from forty outstanding American scientists), affirmed “that science can establish, by the observed facts of Nature and intellectual argumentation, that a super-human power exists.” . Dr. A. Cressy Morrison, former President of the New York Academy of Sciences, affirmed that “so many essential conditions are necessary for life to exist on our earth that it is mathematically impossible that all of them could exist in proper relationship by chance on any one earth at one time.” Dr. Arthur H. Compton, Professor of Physics at the University of Chicago and Nobel laureate, wrote: “It is not difficult for me to have this faith, for it is incontrovertible that where there is a plan there is intelligence–an orderly, unfolding universe testifies to the truth of the most majestic statement ever uttered–‘In the beginning, God.'” . Louis Agassiz, M.D., Ph.D., Harvard University (and a life-long opponent of Darwinian evolution), made these remarks:.. “Though I know those who hold it to be very unscientific to believe that thinking is not something inherent in matter, and that there is an essential difference between inorganic and living and thinking beings, I shall not be prevent ed by any such pretentions of a false philosophy from expressing my conviction that as long as it cannot be shown that matter or physical forces do actually reason, I shall consider any manifestation of physical thought as an evidence of the existence of a thinking being as the author of such thought, and shall look upon intelligent and intelligible connection between the facts of nature as direct proof of a thinking God….’ All these facts in their natural connection proclaim aloud the one God whom man may know, adore, and love, and natural history must in good time become the analysis of the thoughts of the Creator of the universe’ as manifested in the animal and vegetable kingdoms.” Lord Kelvin, the famed English thermodynamicist once said, “I cannot admit that, with regard to the origin of life, science neither affirms nor denies Creative Power. ‘Science positively affirms Creative Power’. It is not in dead matter that we live and move and have our being, but in the creating and directing Power which science compels us to accept as an article of belief…. There is nothing between absolute scientific belief in a Creative Power, and the acceptance of the theory of a fortuitous concourse of atoms…. Forty years ago I asked Liebig famed chemist Justus von Liebig–BT, walking some-where in the country, if he believed that the grass and flowers that we saw around us grew by mere chemical forces. He answered, ‘No, no more than I could believe that a book of botany describing them could grow by mere chemical forces’…. Do not be afraid of being free thinkers! ‘If you think strongly enough you will be forced by science to the belief in God’, which is the foundation all religion. ‘You will find science not antagonistic but helpful to religion.'” . One cannot help but wonder what has caused many of the most prominent and brilliant minds of both days gone by and of our day to make such statements. No doubt, at least a partial explanation lies in the fact that they saw a few, or many, of the thousands of “signposts” or “ensigns” scattered throughout the natural world which point clearly to the unseen Designer of nature. These “signposts” are multitudinous in our world, and plainly obvious to those whose minds have not been blinded by the “god of this world” (II Corinthians 4:4), “refusing to have God in their knowledge” (Romans 1:28). An examination of these “ensigns” makes for a profitable and edifying study. NATURE’S HOME: THE UNIVERSE When the writer of Hebrews stated that, “…every house is builded by someone…” (Hebrews 3:4), he suggested the well-known principle of cause and effect. Today the Law of Causality is the fundamental law of science. Every effect must have an adequate cause. Further indicated is the fact that no effect can be qualitatively superior to or quantitatively greater than the cause. The universe is here, and is a tremendous effect. Hence, it must be explained in terms of an adequate cause. There are four possible explanations for the universe. (1) It is but an illusion, and does not really exist. This is hardly worthy of consideration. (2) It spontaneously arose out of nothing. This view is absurd, and cannot be entertained scientifically. Dr. George E. Davis, prominent physicist, has declared:”No material thing can create itself.” . (3) It has always existed. This theory, though held by many atheistic scientists of our day, is scientifically untenable. Many evidences (e.g., the Second Law of Thermodynamics) reveal that the stars are burning up, the sun is cooling off, the earth is wearing out, etc. Such facts indicate that the universe had a beginning; otherwise it would long ago have already reached a state of deadness. Dr. Robert Jastrow, of NASA, states in his book, ‘God and the Astronomers : “I am fascinated by some strange developments going on in astronomy…. The essence of the strange developments is that the Universe had, in some sense, a beginning–that it began at a certain moment in time…. And concurrently there was a great deal of discussion about the fact that the second law of thermodynamics, applied to the Cosmos, indicates that the Universe is running down like a clock. If it is running down, there must have been a time when it was fully wound up….The astronomer comes to a time when the Universe contained nothing but hydrogen–no carbon, no oxygen, and none of the other elements out of which planets and life are made. This point in time must have marked the beginning of the Universe.” (4) It was created. This is the only remaining alternative and the only reasonable view of the origin of the universe. Since our finite, dependent (and contingent) universe (of matter/energy) did not cause itself, it was obviously caused by an infinite, independent, eternal Mind. God, speaking through Moses (Genesis 15:5) and Jeremiah (33:32), mentioned that “the host of heaven cannot be numbered, neither the sand of the sea measured ….” Little did we know how true those statements were. Johann Bayer (1603) devised a system to indicate the brightness, or magnitude, of the stars, using the Greek and Roman alphabets to denote their brightness. Remember Paul’s statement to the Corinthians (I Corinthians 15:41): “…for one star differeth from another star in glory.” Men before and after Bayer tried to count the stars. Hipparchus the astronomer, in 128 B.C. counted the stars and said there were 1,026. In 150 A.D., the famous astronomer Ptolemy counted the stars and arrived at the number of 1,056. Years later, in 1575 A.D., the renowned Danish astronomer, Tyco Brah, counted the stars and said there were 777. In 1600 A.D. the German astronomer Johannes Kepler counted the stars and gave the number 1,005. At last counting (and we are nowhere near finished yet) the number of stars stood at ’25 sextillion’. That’s a 25 with twenty-one zeroes after it! There are an estimated one billion galaxies,. and most of them contain billions of stars (the Milky Way galaxy in which we live, for example, contains over ‘100 billion stars’). It is so large that travelling at the speed of light (186,317.6 miles per second) it would take you 100,000 years to go across just the diameter of the galaxy. Light travels in one year approximately 5.87 x 1O.MDSU/12′ miles. In 100,000 years, that would be 5.87 x 1O.MDSU/17′ miles, or 587+ quadrillion miles. Our nearest neighboring galaxy is the Andromeda galaxy, which is an estimated 2,000,000 light years away. That’s so far that a radio wave which goes around the earth approximately 8.2 times in one second would require over 1 million years to get there, and a return message would take another 1+ million years. The observable universe has an estimated diameter of 20 billion light years. But it isn’t simply the size of the universe that is so marvelous. The size is important, of course, but so is the ‘design’. The earth, for example, in orbiting the sun, departs from a straight line by only one-ninth of an inch every 18 miles–a very straight line in human terms. If the orbit changed by one-tenth of an inch every 18 miles, our orbit would be vastly larger and we would all freeze to death. If it changed by one-eighth of an inch, we would come so close to the sun w e would all be incinerated.. Are we to believe that such precision “just happened by accident”? The sun is burning at approximately 20 million degrees Celsius at its interior.. If we were to move the earth ‘away’ 10%, we would soon freeze to death. If we were to move the earth ‘closer’ by 10%, we would once again be incinerated. The sun is poised at 93 million miles from earth, which happens to be just right–by accident? The moon is poised some 240,000 miles from the earth. Move it in just onefifth, and twice every day there would be 35-50 feet high tidal waves over most of the earth’s surface. The distance of 240,000 miles happens to he just right–by accident? And consider these facts: the earth is rotating at 1,000 miles per hour on its axis at the equator, and moving around the sun at 70,000 miles per hour (approximately 19 miles per second), while the sun with its solar system is moving through space at 600,000 miles per hour in an orbit so large it would take over 220 million years to complete just one orbit. Remember the psalmist’s statement (Psalm 19:61) about the sun–“his circuit is from the ends of the heavens.” What would happen if the rotation rate of the earth around the sun were halved, or doubled? If it were halved, the seasons would be doubled in length, which over most of the earth would cause such harsh summer heat and winter cold that not enough food could be grown to feed the world’s population. If it were doubled, no single season would be long enough to grow the amount of food necessary to feed the world’s population. Remember God’s words to Moses: (a) “Let there be lights in the firmament of heaven to divide the day from the night: and let them be for ‘signs and for seasons’, for days and for years” (Genesis 1:14, emp. added), and; (b) “While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease” (Genesis 8:22). Then there is this matter: from where does our day come? It comes from the earth’s rotation once approximately every 24 hours on its axis. From where do we get our month? It comes from the moon circling the earth once approximately every 28 days. From where does our year come? It takes the earth approximately 365.26 days to go around the sun. ‘But where do we get our week?’ There is no purely natural explanation for the week. The explanation, instead, is found in Exodus 20:11 (cf., Exodus 31:17): “for in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day….” The week is an entirely universal phenomenon. Yet there is no purely natural explanation for it. Little wonder Isaiah wrote (40:26): “Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who hath created these things, that bringeth out their host by number; he calleth them all by names by the greatness of his might, for that he is strong in power; not one faileth.” The fundamental law of science, we repeat, is the Law of Causality which states that every effect must have an adequate cause. There is no known exception. The universe is admittedly a known effect. Note Dr. Robert Jastrow’s statement in his book, ‘Until The Sun Dies’: “The Universe and everything that has happened in it since the beginning of time, are a grand effect ‘without a known cause’.” . The question is: ‘What is the adequate cause?’ The atheist/agnostic has no answer, as Dr. Jastrow has so well explained. The Christian, of course, does. ‘God is the First Cause’, and has left the evidences of His existence so evident that they are incontrovertible. NATURE’S HUMAN INHABITANT: MAN “Men go abroad to wonder at the height of mountains, at the huge waves of the sea, at the long courses of the rivers, at the vast compass of the ocean, at the circular motion of the stars; and they pass by themselves without wondering.” So stated Augustine many years ago. So many people fail to see one of the most powerful arguments possible for God’s existence–their own selves! Consider, for example, the “earthly tabernacle” (II Corinthians 5:1) that we call the human body. It is comp osed of 30+ different kinds of cells, totalling over ‘100 trillion’ cells when all added together to make up the human adult.. These cells come in all different sizes and shapes, with different functions and life expectancies. For example, some cells (e.g., male spermatozoa) are so small that 20,000 would fit inside a capital “O” from a standard typewriter, each being only 1/20th mm long. Some cells, put end-to-end, would make only one inch if 6,000 were assembled together. Yet all the cells of the human body, if set end- to-end, would encircle the earth over 200 times. Even the largest cell of the human body, the female ovum, is unbelievably small, being only 1/1OOth of an inch in diameter. Yet each cell is composed of a lipo- protein membrane lining (lipids/proteins/lipids) which is approximately 6/100-8/100 fm (4 atoms) thick. Yet it allows selective transport outside the cell of those things that ought to go out, and selective transport into the cell of those things that ought to go in. Inside the cell’s three-dimensional cytoplasm there are over 20 different chemical reactions going on at any one time, with each cell containing five major systems: (1) communication; (2) waste disposal; (3) nutrition; (4) repair, and; (5) reproduction. The endoplasmic reticulum of the cell serves as a transport system. The ribosomes produce protein, which is then distributed around the body as needed by the Golgi bodies. The mitochondria (over 1,000 per cell) are the “powerhouses” of the cell, producing the energy needed by the body. The nucleus, of course, carries the genetic code in its DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Red blood cells (there are approximately 30 trillion of them) live about 120 days; white blood cells (the blood’s defense system) live about 13 days; platelets (which help blood to clot) live about 4 days; nerve cells may live over 100 years. In any given 60-second period, approximately 3 billion cells die and are replaced in the human body through the process we call ‘mitosis’, whereby the standard chromosome number (in the human, 46) is faithfully reproduced. A single cell contains a strip of DNA (placed in the nuc leus in a spiral-staircase configuration) which is about one yard long, and which contains ‘over 6 billion biochemical steps’. Every cell of the body contains such DNA–over a billion miles total in one human. How powerful is the DNA? It provides, in coded form, ‘every physical characteristic of every living person’. How many people are there on the face of the earth? There are a few more than 5 billion. It took two cells (a male spermatozoan and a female ovum) to make each one of these people. If there are roughly 5 billion people on the earth, and it took two cells to make each of them, that’s approximately 10 billion cells (remember: this is the DNA it took to give every living person every physical characteristic he or she has), and that DNA would fit into no more than ‘1/8th of a cubic inch’! Does that tell you how powerful the DNA is? Are we to then understand that this kind of design came “by accident”? Hardly! The Hebrew writer was correct when he said, “For every house is builded by someone; but he that built all things is God”(3:4). Consider the skin of the human. It is a nearly waterproof layer, enclosing the body’s contents, almost 60% of which is water. It prevents the exit or entrance of too much moisture, and acts as a protector for the rest of the body. At the same time it is both a radiator and retainer of heat, helping to regulate the body’s temperature in conjunction with the two hypothalamus glands in the brain. Skin may be as thick as 5/16th of an inch (e.g., the eyelid). The skin contains over 2,000 sweat glands which form one of the most ingenious air-conditioning systems ever known to man. Skin acts as a barrier to protect the sensitive internal organs, and even has the power to regenerate itself. Consider the skeletal system of the body. It is composed of 206 bones, more durable and longer lasting than man’s best steel. Each joint produces its own lubrication and the system as a whole is able to provide not only structure, but great protection (e.g., the 24 ribs guarding the internal viscera). There are 29 skull bones, 26 spinal vertebrae, 24 ribs, 2 girdle bones, and 120 other bones scattered over the body. The bones range in size, from the tiny pisiform bone in the hand, to the great femur (over 20 inches long in the thigh of an average man). Yet in a man weighing 160 pounds, the bones weigh only 29 pounds. Remember Paul’s comment about “all the body fitly framed and knit together through that which every joint supplieth, according to the working in due measure of each several part, making the increase of the body into the building up of itself…” (Ephesians 4:16). And consider, of course, the muscles. There are over 600 of them in the human, with the function of contraction and release. From the smile on the face of the newborn baby to the legs of the marathon runner, the muscles are in charge. They are placed, however, into two systems–the ‘voluntary system’ over which you have control (reach out and grab a ball), and the ‘involuntary system’ over which you have little or no control (try stopping a kidney). Are we to believe that the skeletal and muscle systems, in all their complexity, “just happened”? No one could ever convince you that, for example, a Cadillac limousine “just happened.” Yet something infinitely greater in design and structure– the human body–we are asked to believe “just happened.” What kind of incongruous logic is that, to reach such a conclusion? As G.K. Chesterton once said: “When men stop believing in God, they don’t believe in nothing. They believe in ‘anything!'” How true. One does not get a poem without a poet, or a law without a lawgiver. One does not get a painting without a painter, or a musical score without a composer. And just as surely, ‘one does not get purposeful design without a designer!’ Consider, for example, the human ear and the human eye. The average piano can distinguish the sounds of 88 keys; the human ear can distinguish over 2,500 different key tones. In fact, the human ear can detect sound frequencies that flutter the ear drums as faintly as one- billionth of a centimeter (a distance one-tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom).. The ear is so sensitive that it could even hear, were the body placed in a completely soundproof room, the blood coursing through the veins. Over 100,000 hearing receptors in the ears are sending impulses to the brain to be decoded and answered. The human eye is the most perfect camera ever known to man. So perfect is it that its very presence caused Charles Darwin to say, “That the eye with all its inimitable contrivances…could have been formed by natural selection seems, I freely confess, absurd in the highest degree.” Darwin also commented: “If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.” The eye, as it turns out, is such an organ, and Darwin’s theory, as such, has broken down. Each human eye is composed of over 107 million cells with 7 million cones (allowing the eye to see in full, living color) and 100 million rods (allowing the eye to see in blacks, whites, and greys). The eyes are connected to the brain by over 300,000 nerves, and can detect light as feeble as 1/100 trillionth of a watt. How is the eye supposed to have “evolved”? What “intermediate state” between no eye and a perfect eye could nature have “selected” to be passed on to successive generations? As Mark Twain once c ommented, “It’s amazing what men will believe, so long as it’s not in the Bible!” There are so many systems in the human body that could be discussed, but since space precludes discussing them all, it is now to the brain that we turn our attention. The brain, of course, regulates the rest of the body. It contains over 10 billion nerve cells, and 100 billion glia cells (which provide the biological “batteries” for brain activity). These cells float in a jellied mass, sifting through information, storing memories, creating what we call consciousness, etc.. Over 120 trillion connections tie these cells together. The brain sends out electrical impulses at a speed of 393 feet per second (270 mph), and receives nerve impulses being produced at a rate of over 2,000/second. The brain receives signals continuously from 130,000 light receptors in the eyes, 100,000 hearing receptors in the ears, 3,000 tastebuds, 30,000 heat spots on the skin, 250,000 cold spots, and 500,000 touch spots. The brain does not move, yet consumes 25% of the blood’s oxygen supply. It is constantly bathed in blood, its vessels receiving 20% of all the blood pumped from the heart. If the blood flow is interrupted for 15-30 seconds, unconsciousness results. If blood is cut off to the brain for longer than 4 minutes, brain damage results. Four major arteries carry blood to the brain as a sort of “fail-safe” system. And, the brain is protected from damage by not one, but three major systems: (1) the outer skull bone; (2) the ‘dura mater’ (Latin for “hard mother”–the protective lining around the brain), and; (3) the absorbing fluid, which keeps the brain from hitting the inner skull. With the brain properly functioning, all the other body systems (hormones, circulatory, digestive, reproductive, etc.) can be overseen and controlled. Are we, as Dr. George Gaylord Simpson of Harvard stated some years ago, “an accident in a universe that did not have us in mind in the first place”? Or, are we created “in the image of God” (Genesis 1:26,27)? Sir Isaac Newton once said, “In the absence of any other proof, the thumb alone would convince me of God’s existence.” How much more, then, should the cells, the brain, the lungs, the heart, the reproductive system, etc., be shouting to us that ‘there is a God, and He is not silent.’ As the psalmist so well said, “I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made” (Psalm 139:14). Or, as Imogene Fey has observed: “The birth of every new baby is God’s vote of confidence in the future of man.” Dr. Lewis Thomas, the renowned medical doctor and author of ‘The Medusa and the Snail’, commented in that work about the “miracle” of how one sperm cell forms with one egg cell to produce a single cell that will, nine months later, become a new human being. His conclusion: “The mere existence of that cell should be one of the greatest astonishments of the earth. People ought to be walking around all day, all through their waking hours, calling to each other in endless wonderment, talking of nothing except that cell…. If anyone does succeed in explaining it, within my lifetime, I will charter a skywriting airplane, maybe a whole fleet of them, and send them aloft to write one great exclamation point after another around the whole sky, until a ll my money runs out.” Yet we are told that such a “miracle” has “just happened.” Carl W. Miller once stated: “To the reverent scientist…the simplest features of the world about us are in themselves so awe-inspiring that there seems no need to seek new and greater miracles of God’s care.” In order to get a poem, one must have a poet. In order to have a law, one must have a lawgiver. In order to have a mathematical diagram, one must have a mathematician. A deduction commonly made is that order, arrangement, or design in a system suggest intelligence and purpose on the part of the originating cause. In the universe, from the vastness of multiplied solar systems to the tiny world of molecules, marvelous design and purposeful arrangement are evidenced. In the case of man, from the imposing skeletal system to the impressive genetic code in all of its intricacy, that same design and purposeful arrangement are evidenced. The only conclusion that a reasonable, rational, unbiased mind can reach is that the existing systems of our world, including all life, have been purposefully designed by an Intelligent Cause. We call that Cause “God.” Conclusion Alan Devoe significantly writes, “Some naturalists have become convinced that there is an ‘unknown force’ at work–a force that guides creatures by influences outside the entire sphere with which science ordinarily works.” We would prayerfully urge those who speak of this ‘unknown force’ to turn to the “God that made the world and all things therein” (Acts 17:24), and ascribe honor and glory to Him. The revelation He has left of Himself in nature simply could speak no louder of His existence than it already does. Furthermore, this examination of arguments for God’s existence has not even touched upon the “historical” arguments which come to bear on the case. For example, the historical Christ, the resurrection, the Bible, the system of Christianity, and other such arguments are equally as important. The arguments from historical fact are additional proof that there is a God, and He is not silent. That Christ existed cannot he doubted by any rational person. His miracles and other works are documented, not only in biblical literature, but in profane, secular history as well. The empty tomb stands as a silent but powerful witness that God does exist (Acts 2:24; Romans 10:9) and that Christ is His Son. The Bible exists; therefore, it must be explained. The men who wrote it were either deceivers, deluded, or telling the truth. What do the evidences say? The internal and external evidences are enough to tell the story of God’s existence, and the fact that He has spoken to us from His inspired word. Additional evidences are available at every turn. Little wonder Paul stated that “in him we live, and move, and have our being…” (Acts 17:28). Moses’ statement still stands as inspired testimony to the fact of the existence of God: “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth” (Genesis 1:1).


Us china

Since the fall of the Soviet Union, the Cold War was over, making the U.S. the only superpower left in the world. This has made the international system much more tranquil, and relaxed. The only country potentially powerful besides the U.S., is China. Many Americans fear China, not only because they are communist, but also because of their huge population. Their population is 1.3 billion people, which accounts 1/5th of the worlds population. As one of the only potential superpowers in the world, it would be in the best interest of all Americans if the U.S. and China became allies, instead of enemies. Peace and development, economic prosperity and social progress, are goals that both of these two countries share. Unfortunately the world is full of many destabilizing factors. We have to figure out how to make the 21st century peaceful and stable, despite all of these factors.

The U.S. and China are two awesome nations. One, being the largest developed nation in the world, the other one being the largest developing country in the world. Both are already permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. The two countries also share common interests in making sure peace and stability is not only done in Asia, but the world at large. We both share common responsibilities in the promotion of global cooperation, and in the prevention of weapons of mass destruction, the crackdown on terrorism, drug trafficking, and other cross-border crimes, along with many other chief areas of primary concern. For example, there is a huge potential for cooperation between countries in the following areas: environmental protection, culture, energy, preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, promoting global economic cooperation, cracking down on international terrorism, cross-border crimes along with many other areas (5).

China has been a communist country since the communist revolution took place in 1949, since then China has been ruled by the dictator Mao Tse-Tung. However the Chinese dictator died in September 1976, he was hailed abroad as one of the worlds great leaders. Certainly one of the more impressive aspects of the Chinese communist government, has been the willingness of the people to protest against it (3, pg. 4).

China has been in a state of revolution and reform since the Sino-Japanese war of 1895. As a result of Japans victory over Russia in 1905, Chinas constitutional reform movement gathered momentum. This forced the Manchu government by public opinion to make gestures of preparation for a constitutional government, an act to which reformers in exile responded enthusiastically by establishing a Political Participation Society (Cheng-wen-she) (1, pg.84).
The apparent willingness of the Manchu government to consider constitutional
reform naturally removed some of the assumptions for revolution and impeded its progress. This helped to sharpen the already intense conflicts that occurred between the reformists and the revolutionaries. In efforts to check this unfavorable tide, the Chinese student revolutionaries in Tokyo extended their war of words to physical combat. Unfortunately the revolutionaries victory over the reformists in Tokyo was not equal to (5=Zhaoxing, Li, Seeking Common Ground,
(3= Moody, Peter, Chinese Politics after Mao, copyright 1983, pg. 2)
(1=Liew, K.S., Struggle for Democracy, copyright 1971, pg. 84-87)
its battlefield victories against the Manchu government in this period. Instead they suffered many discouraging reverses. The failure of the uprisings on December 1906 caused the entire revolution to move to the southern provinces along the Hong Kong/Indo-China border (1, pg. 86).

Between 1907 and 1908 six unsuccessful uprisings in South China were underwent by the Chinese League in South China. Do to deaths of Emperors and Empresss, control of the government fell into the hands of younger, very inexperienced Manchu princes. The intolerance and animosity these princes held towards non-Manchu statesmen, and overhasty indiscreet execution of centralization policy, cost them the service and affection of loyal and able Chinese officials. At the same time the reformers discredited themselves by having internal squabbles over money (1, pg.87).

While all of this turmoil was going on in the country of China, its foreign relations were worsening. British troops entered Tibet, while the Russians pressed for treaty revisions respecting its trade relations with Mongolia and Sinkiang. The revolutionaries felt the urgency of overthrowing the Manchu dynasty as the prerequisite for dealing with their difficulties with foreign nations. They felt that the time for saving China was running out, and they must get rid of the incompetent Manchus (3).
In 1911 the Chinese revolutionaries were not aware of the necessity or the techniques for organizing the masses for revolution. The majority of the Chinese did not even take part in the Chinese Cultural Revolution. Participation was confined to students, soldiers, members of secret societies, and some government officials. It is said that the revolutionaries neglect of socialist principles greatly contributed to the failure of the 1911 revolution.This is because they failed to broaden the basis of their revolution to include peasants. This 1911 revolution provided China with its very first chance at adopting democracy, but its failure drove many to take the opposite course of action. Many began to doubt the validity of democracy under Chinese conditions, after this revolution failed (1, pg. 198-200).

The Pro-democracy demonstrations in Beijing and other cities from April to June 1989 were more than just an episodic expression of popular discontent with the Chinese government. Of prime importance was the non-violent nature of the protesters. The extraordinary self-discipline of the one-million-strong demonstrations was a testimony to the populations collective awareness that violence would only destroy the movements moral force. Chinas leaders fostered profound distrust, and mutual suspicion among the population by cynically manipulating popular discontent and encouraging strife for their narrow ideological goals. In contrast, 1989 witnessed the forming of a genuine civil society in urban China as popular consciousness was created among the different groups and individuals. The massive support for the student movement in 1989 indicated a profound rupture between state and society, and in the long-lasting divisions between the intellectuals and the people (2, pg. 131-3).
Most of the U.S.s problems in its relations with China stem from human rights abuses that their government has done to its people. In the spring of 1989, an unprecedented popular movement in Beijing and other cities peacefully challenged the authority of the government, only to be crushed by military force. Chinese tanks and machine guns crushed student pro-democracy demonstrations in Beijings Tiananmen
Square, which killed, wounded, and imprisoned thousands of peaceful protesters.

(2=Saich, Tony The Chinese Peoples Movement copyright 1990, pg. 131-133)
In the immediate aftermath of Chinas greatest political crisis since the communist takeover in 1949, the regime attempted to regain legitimacy that was lost during one nights carnage by the Peoples Liberation Army that resulted in over a thousand innocent civilian deaths. To defend the crackdown on both the domestic and the international fronts the Chinese government warned that any recurrence of popular protests would be summarily crushed (2).

China was our ally in WWII, fighting against Japan. But after the communist revolution of 1949, things changed, China became an enemy. The estimated annual defense budget of china is $8.7 billion dollars, however the expenditures have been estimated at ten times that amount at $87 billion dollars. That is still less than a third of what the U.S. defense budget is at $265. $87 billion 1/3 of Americas defense budget is not a lot of money considering the fact that there population is almost three times the size the U.S. has. The political fallout from the Tiananmen crisis shaped much of Chinas political landscape after 1989. Extensive organizational measures were adopted to squelch political conflicts within the Chinese Communist Party and the Peoples Liberation Army, and to tighten control over colleges, factories, and villages. The lessons of the 1989 pro-democracy movement was that a ruling Communist party could not tolerate liberalization (4,pgs. 1-3)
The serious hard-line communist resisted any, and all of the propositions that would involve any political change that might threaten the one-party dictatorship, thus condemning Western Cultural and political influence in China. Moderate components in
the party, forced on the defensive by the 1989 crackdown, appealed for incremental
(4=Sullivan, Lawrence R., China Since Tiananmen copyright 1994, pgs. 1-2)
institutional alterations and advocated even bigger openness to the West. The pair agreed that unless high-level corruption was stopped, the country faced dissolved political instability. Some among the leadership even feared a similar breakup to that of Yugoslavia (4, pg. 2).

Despite outward appearances of strength, the Chinese leadership has been revealed as weak, divided internally, and unable to keep up with the forces of change that has been sweeping much of the Communist world. While the leaders maintain short-term power, they cannot maintain without upkeep of the key sectors of their urban society. The present policy prescriptions can be summarized as back to the future. The old politicians who dominate Chinas politics dream of a bygone golden age when political stability and solid economic prospering under an essentially Soviet-style economy, when it was clear who the friends and enemies were (2, pg.viii).
China and the U.S. have been through many different phases of friendship together. We have gone from allies (WWII) to enemies (Cold War). There has been a great deal of tension between the two countries over human rights violations, like the Tiananmen Square massacre that happened in 1989. In this massacre thousands of Chinese students were murdered for holding pro-democracy demonstrations. This resulted in an angered President George Bush suspending all high-level governmental exchanges. After having been suspended in 1951, most-favored nation status was restored to China in 1980 conditionally under the Jackson-Vanik freedom-of-emigration amendment of the Trade Act of 1974 and must be renewed annually (7, pg. 2).
(7=Pregelj, Vladimir, Most Favored-Nation Status of China,
Most Favored Nation Status (MFN) can be withdrawn from China in several ways: (1) by appropriate direct legislation enacted through regular legislative process; (2) by using the specific means provided in the Trade Act of 1974 for denying MFN status to a country that had it restored under that law, i.e., by the fast-track enactment of a joint resolution disapproving the mid-year annual renewal of the Jackson-Vanik waiver authority with respect to China, if such renewal is recommended by the President, or (3) by the Presidents failure to recommend such renewal with respect to China in the first place (e.g., for noncompliance with the Jackson-Vanik requirements). China also can lose its MFN status if the agreement is terminated, upon notice, at the end of a term or if the 3-year extension of the U.S.-China trade agreement does not take place because the President declines to make the required determination (7, pg. 3 paragraph 5).

In 1995 the Trade Subcommittee of the House Ways and Means Committee, anticipating the 1995 Presidential extension of the waiver, on May 23, 1995, held a hearing on the U.S.-China trade relations and renewal of Chinas MFN status. The extension itself, without additional conditions, took place on June 2, 1995, by Presidential Determination 95-23 (60 FR 31047; H.Doc. 104-82) and was followed by the introduction of resolutions disapproving the extension (H.J.Res. 96 and S.J.Res. 37). H.J.Res. 96 was reported adversely (H.Rept. 104-188), considered under a rule (H.Res.139;H.Rept. 104-194) and tabled July 20, 1995, by a yea-and-nay vote of the House (321-107). This action precluded the enactment of the companion measure (S.J. Res. 37)(7, pg. 4 paragraph #3).

China is a country that has been victimized by foreigners many different times throughout history. It was not until the twentieth century that China started to recover some degree of self-government, and independence. Many believe that China will become more like the western countries, meaning more materialistic, non-ideological, and this will result in a freer culture and politics. China is currently emerging as a great power, and a potential rival to the U.S. in the Pacific Ocean. It is felt they are trying to replace the U.S. as the dominant power in Asia, meaning the U.S. is seen as a chief obstacle to its own strategic ambitions. This can be seen as an attempt of China to account for centuries of humiliating weakness, and establishing China as a center for a global civilization. This is feared because this will challenge U.S. global supremacy.What is the U.S. so afraid of? Is it, that the county with a fifth of the worlds population is trying to become the worlds second biggest superpower?
In 1994 President bill Clinton renewed Chinas most favored nation trading status, this guaranteed Chinas privileged access to U.S. markets. Currently many U.S. companies do business in China making huge profits. With U.S. corporations making a ton of money in China, does this mean that Capitalism is only a step away in China?
China poses very little of a military threat to the U.S., even though they are currently engaged in one of the most extensive and rapid military build-ups in the world. This is said, because China is the third-largest nuclear power in the world, and the only one in Asia. There is little to fear though, Chinas most advanced warplane is the equal to the late 1960s U.S. warplane. Even better is the fact that the Japanese aircrafts are much more superior to their Chinese counterparts. China can not offset Japans ability to produce a 21st century aircraft. China is very distant from occupying a power plant, avionics, and metallurgy engineering that are essential to make a plane that can take-off and land on an aircraft carrier in any type of weather (4, pg. 36-38).

The U.S. must offer China much more than just the opportunity to follow the rules. They must come up with a new and appropriate policy of engagement that will require acknowledging the Chinese interests that will accommodate both of our countries. This is needed to prevent nuclear proliferation on the Korean peninsula. We must also accommodate the Chinese interests in Sino-Pakistani security ties. These steps will require Washington DC to admit the economic causes of trade imbalances and how the Chinese government has limited ability to make sure their domestic laws and their international commitments work (3, pg.89-91).

Of course these steps give the U.S. little guarantee that the engagement of our two countries will really work. It will take negotiations on both sides to make hard policy adjustments and to seek a compromise to a solution. Washington will have to guard the unilateral interests that it has. This means maintaining current duty stations in Asia where U.S. soldiers are deployed. Retrenchment would do more to effect the Sino-American bilateral equilibrium of power than any combo of Chinese Military and economic platforms would. This U.S. should not rely on compulsive measures for Chinese cooperation. These compulsive measures would produce a renewed sense of tension in Sino-American relations that would result in heightened instability in East Asia. The U.S. has such a strategic head start on China, causing Washington to have the break of sitting back and watching China modernize before they go adding a more positive approach to the China-U.S. relations 6, pg.3).

China is vulnerable to neighboring countries that crowd China on all borders. This results in serious security problems within Chinese borders. This has caused U.S. (6=Yebai, Zhang, Sino-U.S. Relations, (
President Bill Clintons problems dealing with China. In 1998 Bill Clinton was accused of looking the other way to the internal abuses, and the exportation of harmful weapons, and their aggressive behavior in the international arena. This is believed to go on because he took secret campaign contributions to his party from the Chinese. It is hoped that eventually all of the facts and mysteries concerning China will all be sorted out and dealt with appropriately. Hopefully the election of George Bush, a new, hopefully competent U.S. President, can get things taken care of more appropriately than Bill Clinton did.
Over the long term, it is felt that we are most likely to be dealing with China, no longer ruled by the communist party but with a reform-minded leadership. This should be on the minds of future policy-makers tackling short-term strategic issues. Even before the events of the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre, foreign business was becoming more realistic of the China market. It is felt that China is a great source of income for U.S. business. So why dont we give that 1/5th of the world a chance? All we can do now, is sit back and watch the future events, to know what is going on with China, and how the U.S. is impacted by the future developments, that China makes.


Garet Graham- (646) 223-5965
Peter Epstein- (646) 223-7873 (spoke with Peter and he said that he needs
to speak to someone who
can give him some information about Muriel Siebert &
Co., Inc in order to qualify us for the service.)
First Call / Thomson One Analytics
(646) 822-2000 or(Called the sales department, but a salesman was not
available. I
(800) 262-6000left my cell phone number and I am expecting a call
back either later today or tomorrow.)

Cochlear implants

Cochlear Implants
A cochlear implant is an electronic device that restores hearing for people anywhere from hard of hearing to the profoundly deaf. The cochlear implant is surgically implanted under the skin behind the ear. The surgeon puts the electrode array inside the inner ear and than inside the cochlea. The implant works by a device outside the ear, which rests on the skin behind the ear. It is held upright by a magnet and is also connected by a lead to a sound professor.
What happens when you get a cochlear implant? First, you are given an injection to make you fall asleep. Once youare asleep the hair behind your ear is shaved off. Then you have the operation tat usually lasts from 2-4 hours. The doctor cuts behind your ear and puts the implant into the bone right there. Next he places an electrical array the curls inside your cochlea. When you wake up you are sent home for a few days to rest. After you are all rested you go to an audiologist to get the sound professor programmed. The sound professor is a main part is allowing
you to hear when you have a cochlear implant and when itas not in, you wonat hear anything. Once the sound professor is programmed you with be able to hear.
The cochlear implant uses a much different method to enable a person to hear opposed to a normal hearing ear. The cochlear implant has five parts; a microphone, sound processor, head piece, implant and hearing nerve. The microphones function is to capture sound from the outside environment. A sound processor than selects and arranges all the sounds captured from the microphone. The headpiece sends the signal through the skin and to the implant to pick up. Than the implant picks up the sound and sends it through the lead and to the electrode array. Finally, the sound is picked up by the hearing nerve and the message is sent to the brain.
When a person with normal hearing hears the sound travels along the ear then bounces against the ear drum. The eardrum, the bones inside, and the cochlea vibrate and move thousands of tiny hairs inside the ear. When these hairs move an electrical response occurs. This electrical response goes to the hearing nerve and then it is send to the brain.
Cochlear implants cost much more then a hearing aid. Insurance companies donat cover the cost of hearing aids however; most companies do cover the cost of getting a cochlear implant. Figuring out the average price of a cochlear implant includes evaluation, the implant itself, surgery and rehabilitation. The total cost including these four things is $40,000.00. Most people think that the fee is well worth it.

Cochlear implants are becoming more and more popular now. Even babies as young as 12 months are receiving a cochlear implant. For hearing parents itas more convenient to have their child get a cochlear implant rather then to learn sign language. Hearing parents usually just look for the simple way out because they donat want to have a child who is adifferent.a
Most Deaf people are against cochlear implants and hold strong views upon it. If someone in the Deaf culture decides to get a cochlear implant they are most likely shunned from the culture. Deaf donat see anything wrong with them and donat understand why some people would want to go against their culture and into the hearing culture. Deaf also donat think that a baby should be implanted with a Cochlear implant. Most children who get implanted donat
learn ASL to communicate in the deaf world and donat learn about their culture.
Crouch, Robert A., aLetting the Deaf be Deaf Reconsidering the Use of Cochlear Implants in Prelingually Deaf Childrena The Hastings Center Report 27.14 (1997): Wilson Select Plus. OCLC. Macomb Community College Library, Clinton Township, MI. 20 Oct. 2004 .

aCochlear Implants and Bacterial Meningitisa FDA Consumer 37.6 Wilson Select Plus. OCLC. Macomb Community College Library, Clinton Township, MI. 21 Oct. 2004 .

aCochlear Hearing Implants Cost-effective-Studya 13 Nov. 2004
aCochlear Implantsa 27 Oct. 2004
aCochlear Implantsa 27 Oct. 2004

Malamud – The Naked Nude

The Elusive Form:
The Use of Female Characters in “Naked Nude”
Michael McBee

English 2420
Dr. Chappell
May 24, 1994
Thesis and Outline:
Thesis: In his picturesque short story, “The Naked Nude”, Bernard Malamud uses the female characters to develop, enact, and resolve Fidelman’s epiphany and to bring about the protagonist’s final, artistic self-understanding.

I. Introductory paragraph–statement of thesis.

II. The prostitutes
A. in contrast to Fidelman’s initial idea of the artistic nude
B. “maybe too many naked women around made it impossible to
draw a nude”–establish basis of conflict within Fidelman
III. Teresa
A. flat, static character–functions totally as a touchstone for
B. provides Fidelman’s first turn towards artistic epiphany
IV. Bessie, his sister
A. childhood memory brings about full epiphany
V. Venus of Urbino
A. aesthetic constant–she, as a painting, remains static
B. Fidelman’s method of viewing her evolves, providing his
VI. Relationship of female characters
VII. Conclusion and restatement of thesis.

McBee 1
The Elusive Form:
Female Characters in “Naked Nude”
Bernard Malamud, a leading contemporary Jewish author, skirts between fantasy and reality in his almost allegorical short fiction, teaching the reader a lesson through coinciding elements of beauty and comedy. Venturing away from his usual, inner-city Jewish element, Malamud tackles new challenges of subject and setting in his novelistic collection of short stories, Pictures of Fidelman . Malamud develops his protagonist through a series of six, interrelated short works, each of which may function entirely independent from the others. In “The Naked Nude,” for instance, Fidelman comes to a new, artistic maturity through his attempt to copy the famous painting “Venus of Urbino” by Titian Tiziano. Malamud’s recurring theme of self-knowledge through suffering permeates this short work. Scarpio and Angelo, as primary antagonists, provide the bulk of this suffering for Fidelman. It is his own mental captivity concerning the female nude, however, that gives cause for Fidelman’s eventual epiphany as an artist and as an individual. His relationship to the women in the work shapes his ability to capture the form of the “Venus” and to come to grips with his own self-worth. In “The Naked Nude,” Bernard Malamud uses the female characters to develop, enact, and resolve Fidelman’s epiphany and to bring about the protagonist’s final, artistic self understanding.
At the story’s outset, Fidelman is forced to act as janitor and manservant to a group of ill mannered prostitutes under the employment of the padrone, Angelo. These offensive characters establish the first of a series of mental obstacles in the imprisoned protagonist’s attempt to copy Titian’s nude. They torment Fidelman with cynical laughter and exploit his demeaning position. His sexual insecurity is established at the beginning of the story when he ponders his violent guillotine sketch, asking “A man’s head or his sex?…either case a terrible wound” (Malamud
McBee 2
318). The limited omniscient narrator, revealing Fidelman’s thoughts and feelings, also suggests that he could gain “no inspiration from whores,” and that “maybe too many naked women around made it impossible to draw a nude” (Malamud 325). This illustrates Fidelman’s early accreditation of his artistic impotency to desensitization. He soon recognizes, however, that the way in which he views the “Venus” also interrupts his progress. In his effort to dissociate the portrayed goddess from the distasteful prostitutes, Fidelman doesn’t see the true nature of her physical beauty. He sees only her “extraordinary flesh that can turn body into spirit” (Malamud 323). Any natural physical beauty present in the prostitutes escapes the copyist, as he embraces form over fact and the inherent spirit over the actual body.

Teresa, the “asthmatic, hairy-legged chambermaid” (Malamud 319), provides Fidelman’s first turn towards artistic self-awareness and towards capturing the elusive “Venus of Urbino.” She is a flat, static character, functioning solely as a touchstone for Fidelman to compare the naked and the nude. After fudging his first attempt to enhance her form, he “consider(s) her with half open eyes” (Malamud 326). After having her don one of the prostitute’s slips, “Fidelman, with a lump in his throat, (gets) her to lie down with him on a dusty mattress in the room” (326). Her blatant nakedness hidden, Fidelman finds a conceptual beauty in the dull chambermaid. This leads to an uncontrollable lust. Instead of viewing her physical body to embrace a pure, aesthetic form, he covers her, viewing his imagination’s pure feminine form and embracing her physical body. At this point in the story the protagonist and the reader get an idea of his previous artistic misconception.

It is the erotic memory of his sister Bessie, however, that brings Fidelman’s epiphany full circle. He relieves a childhood memory in a dream in which he watches her bathe, and the next day he is able to assimilate all of the nudes he has
McBee 3
ever seen to recreate “Venus” in actual flesh-and-bone. He is faced with the realization that “love is often most real when it is most perverse” (Helterman, 84).
He had caught the figure of the Venus but when it came to her flesh
he never thought he would make it. As he painted he seemed to
remember every nude he had ever done…in every conceivable shape
or position…at the same time choked by remembered lust for all the
women he had ever desired, from Bessie to Annamaria Oliovino, and
for their garters, underpants, slips, brassiers and stockings. (Malamud
This somewhat perverse, revived lust for his sister opens a new door for Fidelman. He is able to deal with his guilt. The nude form is realized rather than idealized. He uses the total sum of his past lust to create, abandoning his former idealistic, Platonic approach.

In the beginning of the story, Titian’s “Venus of Urbino” is elusively enigmatic for the distraught protagonist. He falls in love with her in the Isola Bella castello:
The golden brown-haired Venus, a woman of the real world, lay on
her couch…, her nude body her truest accomplishment. ‘I would
have painted somebody in bed with her,’ Scarpio said. ‘Shut up,’
said Fidelman. Scarpio, hurt, left the gallery. Fidelman, alone with
Venus, worshiped the painting. (Malamud 322)
This scene offers some interesting hints. Her position on a couch, for instance, marks Titian’s “Venus” as an obvious departure from the wispy, spiritual Venus floating in on her pink shell in Botticelli’s “Birth of Venus.” Titian’s is an earth-bound Venus: natural, fleshy, and almost plump. Scarpio’s crude comment becomes a kind of foreshadowing irony, suggesting a physical recognition of the
feminine form presented. Fidelman cannot give in to his aesthetic love of the “Venus” until he recognizes her on this natural plain and abandons his childhood guilt.
McBee 4
His completion of the copy, many critics argue, marks the protagonist’s assimilation of both love andlust, filling a void in his life. Edward A. Abramson explains that “copying Titian’s masterpiece becomes not so much a quasi-artistic exercise as an attempt to fill a gap in his love starved life” (Abramson 83). In turn, Fidelman recognizes himself as an artist through the work. Christof Wegelin suggests this notion:
The nude he paints is “naked,” as the title of the story proclaims,
because it represents his own life, himself: ‘The Venus of Urbino,
c’est moi!’ The liberation of the creative flow initiates the liberation
of the man…. For by choosing his own creation he has chosen him-
self. (Wegelin 144-5)
Fidelman experiences a fulfilling epiphany through his Venus, and it results in a fulfilled love.

Notably, some critics have emphasized the negative aspects of Fidelman’s “epiphany.” Robert Ducharme, for instance, insists that “it should be remembered that Fidelman’s theft of his own work has been motivated by self-love as much as anything” (Ducharme, 174). It is true that Fidelman assumes a sort-of selfish arrogance at the work’s conclusion. This view, however, is derived from the story’s position within the larger collection, Pictures of Fidelman . The other stories seem to gravitate around a contrasting set of themes. In its own context, however, “Naked Nude” suggests that self-love is a
Category: English


Steroids, what they are why people use them
Mohammed Ghatala
SEC # 3

What are anabolic steroids? Anabolic steroids are a group molecules that include the male sex hormone testosterone and synthetic analogs of testosterone (Taylor,1991) Anabolic steroids are used by many people in sports today due to the rapid increase in muscle mass. Anabolic steroids are made synthetically and are very powerful. Recent evidence suggests that there may be over 3,000,000 regular anabolic steroid users in the United States and most of these users buy there steroids illegally (Taylor,1991) I am interested in finding out more about steroids and its effects.

Steroids are used in veterinary medicine. They are used in meat production, to increase muscle in cattle which produces lean beef, and they are given to show horses, racehorses, and race dogs to increase their muscle mass. People today are abusing the use of anabolic steroids. Though intended for people who have just had surgery or may be sick to get them strong, healthy people, mainly athletes, who simply want to promote muscle growth, often use the drug. On the streets steroids are known as “juice” or “roids”. The history of steroid use dates back to the late 1930s. Steroids were first developed in World War 2, the German army reportedly gave anabolic steroids to their soldiers to make them more aggressive in war. After the war, doctors in Europe and the United States frequently used steroids to treat anemia – a blood disorder – and malnutrition, and helped recover more quickly from operations. By the late 1940s, bodybuilders in Eastern Europe were taking testosterone in various forms. In the 1950s, athletes used anabolic steroids to improve their performance in international competition. In 1956, American doctor John B. Zieglar worked with a drug company to produce anabolic steroids in the United States. Professional athletes particularly football players began using anabolic steroids as early as the 1960s. The health dangers of anabolic steroids were not yet recognized, and athletes obtained steroids from team doctors.
When state laws were passed against steroids in the 1960s a black market or illegal trade began for steroids. Steroids eventually found their way into school level athletic programs at both college and high school levels.
Most steroid users are not thinking about whether they might be harming their body or not. There are many health consequences of steroid use. There is liver toxicity, infertility, heart disease, and Prostate problems just to name a few. Some physical and side effects of steroid use are things like hair loss, nose bleeds, acne, high blood pressure. Long lasting side effects are things like higher tolerance for pain increased or lowered sex drive, sterility, impotence, increased appetite, and insomnia. In male users anabolic steroids can cause the penis to enlarge and the testicles to shrink (Yesalis, et al.,1998)
The permanent irreversible physical side effects of steroid use are much more serious. Anabolic steroids can increase the levels of fat in the blood; users are at risk of heart attacks and other heart problems. Steroids can cause kidney disease, Jaundice, Peliosis Hepatis, and liver Tumors. But steroids that build those muscles can lead to lowered self-esteem, depression, and inability to think clearly, and lack of energy. Medical researchers are also looking at the connection between testosterone and the increase hostility and the potential for violence at high levels. Recently, data from a nationwide study confirmed prior studies and demonstrated a strong association between anabolic steroid use and self-acknowledged acts of violence against people and crimes against property (Yesalis et al., 1998)
The health risks that go along with the use of steroids may stop some people from using them. They are also illegal in the United States without a prescription. Penalties for steroid use can resolve in fines or imprisonment. There are even penalties for doctors who give anabolic steroids to athletes solely to improve their athletic skill. Until the late 1980s, doctors were the primary source of the drugs for more than a third of the users in the United States. Today, less then 10 percent of steroid users obtain their drugs by prescription (Taylor,1982) Which caused the need for drug testing for athletes.

Drug testing has spread through all different sports from baseball to football. Like all substances taken into the body, anabolic steroids are broken down and changed in the body. This process makes it difficult to find anabolic steroids in the original form. There for when drug test are given for sporting events the drug tester looks for metabolites. The distinctive patters that are formed in these metabolites are like fingerprints in that they are unique and can be matched with the known metabolic signature pattern. Each IOC-accredited laboratory maintains an extensive library of these metabolite patterns (Goldman, 1955) The history of drug testing all started in the Olympic Winter Games in 1968. Accurate testing didn’t start until the Summer Olympic Games of 1976.
Steroids are not instant muscles. Just because you take steroids does not mean that you will increase in muscle size. There are more effective ways of increasing you physique and keep from harming your body. Steroids are to be used only in the medical field for helping patients who need the help. People who are using steroids should be more aware of what is going to happen to their body in the long term.

Goldman B. Et,al., (1984) Death in the Locker room, Icarus Press South Blend, Indiana p76
Taylor W. (1982). Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete, McFarland ; Company, Inc., Publishers p3
Taylor W. (1991). Macho Medicine, McFarland ; Company, Inc., Publishers p1,78
Yesalis C. Et, al., (1998) The Steroids Game, Cowart and Associates p31,53,58