The Education System

The Education System
The education system in my country is different from U.S education; mostly
it is similar to France education system.The education system in my country
is very restricted and it is not easy to graduate from high school. I have been
attending US colleges for almost four years now. I finished high school in my
country and never get a chance to attend college in there. In this essay I
would like to compare and contrast the differences between my high school
education system and US education system. Even though, I never attend high
school in US but I have some friends who told me about high school system. One
of the differences is that in my country all high school students had to ware
school uniform, but in here the high school student they can wear what ever they
want. Second, there was no choice for us to take those classes that we want we
had to take what was offered, in contrast in US high schools students can take a
lest those classes that they like. Third, the exams in my country was pretty
the same as US system.

First of all, in my county all high students we had to wear uniform.

We had to wear black skirts, white tops, black shoes and black tights. The good
thing about uniform was that it wasn’t expensive for parents to get uniform for
their children each year, second, it was good for students to concentrate only
on there classes and third it was very organized. For instance, in my family
three person went to high school and parents bought us uniforms only once a year
which was not very expensive, second every day when we waked up we didn’t had to
worry about what to wear and worrying that we don’t have enough clothes.

Therefor, wearing uniform was very good so most of our concentration was on our
classes not on clothing. Finally, wearing uniform was very organize when we
passed the rode everyone know that we were high school students. In contrast,
in America high school students can wear any thing they want and there is no
restriction. In my opinion, it is very expensive for parents to prepare
different clothes for their children everyday.May be it is no problem for
some parents, but in most of the cases like single working parent that has to
work full time and have other expenses it is not easy to buy clothes for their
children every day. For example, one of my friend’s daughter goes to high
school and her mother works full time she is not making enough money to buy new
clothes for her daughter every day. Therefor, the good thing about uniform is
that it is not expensive for parents to get uniform for their children and
beside that it is more organize too for the students.

Secondly, in my education system we didn’t had a chance to take those
classes that we liked. For example there was 14 subjects such as History,
Geography, Biology, Physic, Chemistry, Political science, Cooking, English and
etc.We had to take all of these classes every year and it was not easy to
pass all these classes. Sometime I didn’t want to study all these math classes
since I had no choice I had to pass that class there for had kill myself and
learn them. In contrast, in US education system it is pretty much up to
individual to pick their interested classes and learn those classes. Therefor,
I really like this system because every one can concentrate on their interested
subject and they learn that subject really good.

Third, the exams between my education system and US system were not very
different. Except, we had only two exams during a semester or every six-month.

But in hear teachers always get quizzes that counts for the final grading which
is really good, but in my country we only had two exams that were comprehensive
and the added all these points together to get the final grad. The US grading
system is much better than our system because they give you more chances to pass
a class by giving you quizzes and midterms. At the end the teachers add all
these points up and a student can finish a class with a good grad. Beside that
by giving these midterms and quizzes it divide the book in to sections which is
very helpful for the student to remember the materials otherwise it is hard to
remember the whole book for final.

Finally, there are many differences between education system in the
world and there are many similarities between them too. My country education
system is very different than American education. The uniform, the classes and
the grading system I hope one day each system could look at the each others
system and find out what is good and what is better for students and change
their old system to a better and new system.

Global Sourcing

Why would a company go international? There are many reasons why companies would go international, but generally a company goes international so they can seek opportunities in domestic markets, or they seek solutions to problems that cannot be solved through domestic operations. There are many profitable possibilities by going internationally and these include greater profit potential, offers new locations to sell products, it may provide better access to needed raw materials, it may access to financial resources from many nations, and lastly it may allow labour-intensive activities to locate in countries with lower labour costs. For a small business to become an international business they must use five guidelines the first is global sourcing, exporting and importing, licensing and franchising, joint ventures, and wholly owned subsidiaries. The first two are market entry strategies and the remaining are direct investment strategies.
The first step in doing international business, this involves manufacturing and/or purchasing of components in different regions of the world and then putting them together to make the final product. The benefit of producing a product in a different part of the world is it can be done at a lower cost. For example Indonesia boasts among the lowest costs in the world, a big domestic market, and proximity to the rest of Asia. As a result, some companies are not merely sticking around they are expanding. Coca-Cola plans to open a new bottling plant next year. All told, over the past three years, the government has approved $26.2 billion in new foreign investment. Officials say foreign investors, apart from petroleum and financial-services companies, employ 3.5 million Indonesians, or 3.5% of the workforce.

Exporting is the commercial activity of selling and shipping a good or goods to a foreign country. Importing is the commercial activity of buying and bringing in goods from a foreign country. The benefits of exporting and importing are good to a countries economy as it creates local jobs. The Honda plant in Alliston exports the Honda Civic (a three door hatchback and four-door sedan) as well it is the only facility in the world that builds the full-size Odyssey minivan and the Acura MDX sport utility vehicle.

Licensing occurs when a firm pays a fee and enters into a licensing agreement giving it the rights to another company’s product, resulting in the rights to make or sell that company’s product. The potential benefit of licensing is that it is a way to transfer technology from one country to another. Franchising is a form of licensing but instead of buying a product you buy a complete “package” of support needed to open a particular business. The benefit of franchising is for example Wendy’s sells a franchise, but they retain certain product and operating controls.

It is a venture by a partnership or corporation designed to share risk or expertise. The benefit of joint venture is that everyone benefits. Both sides benefit from each others markets. In mid-June, Renault announced a joint venture with Suzuki assembler Indomobil that will assemble and distribute several Renault models.

It is an operation completely and totally owned by another firm. Thirty-four Arby’s Restaurants that are located in the Chicago land area is operated as wholly owned subsidiaries of Lunan Corporation.
The reasons outlined above are very important and beneficial to a small company that is going towards the international scene. In all of the examples management’s decisions were affected as the firms began to grow, and increase. There are the five steps to follow in becoming an international company.

External/Internal Factors Paper

External/Internal Factors Paper
There are many external and internal factors that impact the planning functions of management. We must all be mindful of these factors because they could have an enormous impact on organizations productivity. The process of assessing the external and internal factors that an organization will face can be vital to the planning function of management. One must determine a set of issues and constraints and then list the assumptions that will impact the implementation of the plan. The environmental assessment develops understanding of external and internal processes that influence the organizations success rate. The purpose of the environmental assessment is to identify and analyze the key trends, forces, and phenomena having a potential impact on the formulation and implementation of strategies. In effect, the environmental assessment attempts to prepare the organization to acclimatize to environmental changes to take advantage of opportunities and to minimize the adverse effects of threats. Once the environmental assessment is complete, it is analyzed to prioritize issues, constraints and assumptions that could influence the planning function of management.
The assessment of external factors analyze outside the physical confines of the enterprise. These factors are beyond the control of the enterprise, and could have significant impact on the planning function of management. The external assessment is performed at a worldwide level and at a metropolitan area level. At the worldwide level, the assessment includes economic trends of national and local economies, social trends, government policies of national and local influence, and technological advancements of the world at large. This includes the impact of our global market, technology advancements throughout the world, and e-business that is rapidly growing. Macro elements are analyzed to uncover issues, constraints and assumptions that could influence the integrated planning function of management. At the metropolitan area level, the assessment includes industry trends, market trends, customer expectations, competitor performance, competitive alternatives, and supplier capabilities.

The internal environmental evaluation closely parallels the external evaluation of the environment. The internal evaluation requires gathering and assimilating information about the firm’s management, marketing, finance, operations, research and development, and information systems operations. Strengths and weaknesses come from the internal environment of the firm. Strengths can be exploited, built upon and made key to accomplishment of mission and objectives. Strengths reflect past accomplishments in production, financial, marketing and human resource management. Weaknesses are internal characteristics that have the potential to limit accomplishment of mission and objectives. Weaknesses may be so important that they need to be addressed before any further strategic planning steps are taken. A basic determination of a firm’s relative strengths and weaknesses is often the first step in the internal evaluation. A hidden benefit in internal evaluations is the opportunity for participants to understand how their jobs, departments, and divisions fit into the whole organization. A manager’s forced communications that occur across departmental lines produces an additional benefit in improving communication within the organization.
The assessment of internal factors analyze inside the physical confines of the organization. These factors are within the control of the organization. The internal assessment considers plan implementation, structure, culture, innovation, diversity, ethics, processes and technology. All of the factors can have a grave impact on the success of an organization. This is why the planning function of management is so important. Technology is rapidly changing, and for a business to succeed it must change with the time to adapt to technologies advancements. In today’s society we are so diverse and globalization is on the rise. Our communication systems must be able to adapt to the world not just our own country. The globalization of the market place reaches far beyond our borders it reaches around the world, and because of this e-business is also on the rise. A company stands to gain more in the global market place when it has the proper tools and techniques in place. With the changes in our world we must be mindful of the global market and do more to understand each other universally.

This brings us to diversity and communication throughout the world. The social-culture element includes the norms, values, beliefs and behaviors associated with the demographic characteristics of a given area or region. Multinational companies in particular are faced with the challenge of diverse social cultural differences in the countries in which they operate. Social-cultural considerations are subject to change, so domestic firms must be aware of this aspect of the external environment as well as multinational firms. We live in a diverse world where more than ever communication with the world is key to our business and societies success. One should become more familiar with the world that surrounds us, because we do no surround the world. Our global market continues to grow, and we must do everything in our power to keep up.

All organizational improvement programs have one thing in common; their success depends on the effectiveness of many collective efforts, rather than any single or individual heroic effort. Contrary to what many managers think, this collective effectiveness cannot be dictated, facilitated, delegated, or otherwise achieved in any instance through direct managerial action alone. This collective effectiveness can only be inspired, balanced and sustained indirectly through the operating environment’s ethics and culture, with management as its champion. When managers are champions of projects, some things get done. Also, when managers are champions of improvement programs, some more things get done. But when managers champion the culture, a much bigger thing happens. The projects, the programs, the quality journey over time, and the organization, all flourish, and the organization truly transforms itself into a higher quality organization.

Because organizations operate as open systems, a relationship between external and internal forces will always exist. Managers must recognize that external and internal forces can be highly interrelated. When managers are able to identify change as well as the external and internal settings in which the change is taking place, the organization will be able to appropriately respond and adopt strategies that will enable the organization to be effective. One should always think critically, and have a mission for your company as a manager. A company without a clear understanding of our global market is a company destined to fail. Set goals for your company. Establish teams to do research and carry forth organizations visions.

Addicted to Love

Addicted to Love
In Gottfried Von Strassburgs retelling of the ancient romance, Tristan, loves portrayal as a psychological disease is considerable. For Rivalin and Blancheflor, Tristan and Isolde, and also King Mark, the affliction causes them to act in a way that they would normally shun.Love changes the perspective on life of those who become intoxicated by its power; whether its shared as a couple or entirely unreciprocated, the lust to attain and secure its presence is consuming.
Loves torment of Tristan and Isolde is a sweet torment that “noble lovers” endure. Grieves are shared, blessings are doubled, and embraces are electrifying on both the physical and emotional levels. One sided love is a hell like no other. Here, passions of the heart will override the sensibilities of the mind. This agony filled state is where Marks resides. This theme of unreturned love is as relevant today as it is in Gottfrieds time. Marks perception of the world, mentally and even at times physically, is greatly skewed by loves drunken haze. Broken on the wheel of love, Marks heart is tortured until he confesses that Isolde is unfaithful; then just as cruel, he is fooled into believing she is his. This repeated scenario of torture is by far the highest tragedy in the romance. The climax of the abuse is when Mark questions his own senses after the discovery of the couple copulating in the garden. Blinded by the violent inebriation of amour, he disavows empirical proof of Isoldes betrayal. While through the omnipotent narration the reader sees that Isolde never loves Mark, the king is nevertheless betrayed. First of course, he betrays himself. All indication points to the affair. His heart is not a friend at this point for Mark. Isoldes betrayal goes beyond betrayal of the state; the real issue is that of betraying the heart. It is only through this betrayal that love is able to rape Marks psyche. Coupled with the fact that his dearest friend and confidant, Tristan, is embroiled in this nightmare; Mark is to be pitied greatly. Gottfried has Mark suffer the three greatest betrayals a person can encounter: his own, that of his lovers and that of his friends. The love Mark has for both Isolde and Tristan only work against him; for had he been free of loves grip, he would have trusted his senses and his intuitions.

Although void of all supernatural occurrences, Rivalin and Blancheflor fall as deeply in love as will their unfortunate son.The ultimately fatal addiction to the euphoria is nearly instantaneous. For both Rivalin and Blancheflor the danger involved in consummating their love is twofold. Bearing a bastard child would result not only in the cataclysmic loss of societal position, but quite possibly her death. Rivalin, less prudent then his future son, risks the wrath of an angry Mark by out right eloping with his true love. Under the influence of loves tyrannical reign, both disregard their reservations and good sense; blinded by passion they escape to Parmenie to be legally wed. Like a wounded cowboy in a classic western film who downs whiskey to avoid the pain of a gunshot wound or snake bite, love appears to ease the pain of Rivalins wounds after a battle. Although on what is almost his death, the passion for Blancheflor numbs his hurt and allows Tristan to be conceived.
As perfect lovers, Tristan and Isoldes addiction to Cupids opiate is surpassed by none. This is proven by the trials Brangane endures, the disregard for Isoldes personal acts of treason, and also the blows to Tristans honor and loyalty to his uncle. Once Isolde has the epiphany that the killer of her Uncle Morold is bathing in the next room, she is enraged. However, she is unable to extract revenge on Tristan. Gottfried suggests this is due to a feminine instinct; simply, that Isolde was too refined to commit such an uncouth act. This delicate characterization of Isolde would not last long. Upon the accidental ingestion of the love potion, Isolde is assaulted by the silent waylayer of hearts. Under siege by love, Isolde and Tristan both transform into a creature of love whose only objective is that of self preservation. Support for this is found each time that Gottfried turns to parallelism when describing the couple. This use of language signals the birth of a new animal, one that is bent on surviving. Once the libation of love is imbibed, Tristan is Isolde, and Isolde is Tristan. Brangane, through no fault of her own, nearly falls prey to the ravenous beast that had become the couple. Gottfried has Brangane nearly suffer two deaths at the hands of the lovers. The first death the maiden suffers is that of her honor. Isolde manipulates her long time friend and servant by playing upon the guilt of her friend. Only under the influence of love would she have asked so much of her friend. This injury, however, is perhaps forgivable. Given the incident in the bath with her future lover, it seems implausible that Isolde could ever have dreamed of having Brangane killed; therefore she must not have been the same person as before. Indeed she was not. Thus love not only changes Isoldes relationship with Brangane, but it changes her relationship with herself. Gottfried is emphasizing that noble lovers have different priorities. First, if the King discovers she is no longer a virgin, then death will quickly follow. This recklessness does not mean that Isolde doesnt value her life. Her loss of innocence is proof of the power of loves coercion. Otherwise, she obviously would have avoided the disgrace. Going further, the only reason she doesnt commit suicide from shear melancholy is because she fears hurting her beloved Tristan. This idea is furthered again, by Gottfrieds use of parallelism. The symbiotic life the lovers are now leading has changed Isoldes perception of herself, because now her identity is linked indefinitely with that of Tristans. They are one in the same, as if they share a mutual physical body. Tristan is not immune to such a change either. Interestingly, the only time he really is able to overcome loves enslaving bonds is during the return trip to Tintagel. Here loyalty and honor win out over loves might. This inconsistency is an odd departure from Gottfrieds theme of loves overwhelming capacity. However, loves reign quickly returns, and proves to be the tragic flaw of the otherwise perfect Tristan. A man who treats loyalty, honor, and chivalric codes as a religious-like ethics, has no trouble betraying not only his uncle and his friend, but his king. Gottfried is emphasizing the corruptive nature that love has over the individual. When in love, the infected wretch changes their entire perspective on life; their goals, their ethics; having all other personal desires subordinated to the intense passion to keep loves fire raging.
Once drunk with love, the victim is likely to assume traits foreign to their character. No matter if its a sip from the chalice or a long draught from the jug, the connoisseur will risk life and limb to maintain the high. In Gottfrieds version of Tristan, loves potency renders much pain and heartache to those who choose to pick up the habit.

Alicia My Story

The main character in this story is a Jewish girl named Alicia. When the book
starts she is ten years old, she lives in the Polish town of Buczacz with her four brothers,
Moshe, Zachary, Bunio, and Herzl, and her mother and father . The holocaust experience
began subtly at first when the Russians began to occupy Buczacz. When her brother
Moshe was killed at a ” Boys School” in Russia and her father was gathered up by
German authorities, the reality of the whole situation quickly became very real. Her father
was taken away shortly after the Russians had moved out and the Germans began to
occupy Buczacz. Once the Germans occupied, they moved the Jewish population of
Buczacz into mass ghettos. Alicia and the rest of her family had to share a house with
several other families which had also been driven out of there homes. The only source of
income in this situation was to sell things at the marketplace, and even there, Jews were
forbidden. Alicia went anyway and sold what she could for food and money.

One day her brother Bunio disappeared from the ghetto. Alicia and her family
found out later that he had been taken to a work camp, but that they could send food
packages to him. Shortly after this, Alicia was taken into custody by German officials and
put on a train to another work camp. Alicia managed to escape from this train by jumping
through a small window. She found her way to a river which led her back to the ghetto.
By this time several people in the ghetto had been feeling the effects of the impoverished
conditions. Starvation, Typhoid, and other diseases, were beginning to take its toll on the
people who lived in the ghetto. Then one day, Alicia found out that her brother Bunio had
been killed in the work camp. A boy had escaped so they lined up all the boys and shot
every fourth one
As time progressed, Alicia began assuming more responsibility for the daily tasks
of the family such as going out and trading for more food in places other than the
marketplace. While this was going on, Zachary and a few other boys from the ghetto had
been forming a sort of resistance. One day Alicia was informed that her brother had been
hanged. After Zacharys death, Alicia was befriended by a woman named Bella. She met
many good friends in the ghetto including a future friend as well as savior, Milek

Months later, Alicia and several other people were rounded up and sent to a prison in
Chortkov. Here the conditions were very poor. Every day more and more people were
taken out and shot. On the inside of the cells it was a cesspool of germs and diseases.
Every morning the jailkeepers would go around the cell and kick people to see if they
were still alive. One of these times Alicia was taken for dead and put onto a wagon with
other bodies. The driver of the wagon found her, nursed her back to better health and
then brought her back to the ghetto.

During this time, before, and after she returned to the ghetto attempts to rid the
ghettos of Jews were called “actions”. To escape being caught by the German police who
took part in the actions, they built large bunkers to hide from their captors. After several
of these actions, the Buczacz ghetto had been emptied by more than half. At this point the
time came to move to a new ghetto.
Alicia had been in this new ghetto only a short time when another action occurred.
This time Alicia was captured and brought to a mass grave with a multitude of other
Jews. Just when Alicia was about to be shot Milek took a gun from one of the shooters
and began shooting other officers. Alicia took advantage of this opportunity, as she had
many others, and ran for her life. She ran fast and far until she found herself coming into a
town which was surrounded with tilled fields. She discovered she could work in exchange
for a small amount of food. She worked hard in these fields and was able to let her
mother in Buczacz know that she was safe.Alicia was reunited with her mother and they
returned to this community where they lived for about a year. She also found out that her
youngest brother Herzl had been taken away and killed Alicia would work at these fields
and get food, she would bring some back to her mother who, because of poor health, was
resting in seclusion most of the day.. One day they met a nice old man that was sort of an
outcast from the rest of the community. He let them stay with him and another Jewish
family that he was taking care of in his shack. They stayed here during the winter while
Alicia still searched for food, in the process, making many friends.

News came one day that the Germans were beginning to fall back from the
Russian fronts and Germanys grip on the Jews in Poland was weakening. This news
made Alicia and her mother move away from the old man who helped them. Alicia and her
mother had formed a very close friendship with the kindly man. When Alicia and her
mother arrived in Buczacz they moved into a regular apartment and began to live a
semi-normal life.

It was not long after Alicia had moved back into Buczacz that the Germans took
over the town again. In this raid on the Jews, Alicias mother was killed by the Germans.
Alicia was taken to another prison where she would later be transported to another mass
grave. While she was waiting, she devised a plan to escape the mass grave by running
down a hillside and into a river. When they were lined up to be shot she ran to the river.
She hid there all night and once again she had escaped the Germans. As she made her way
back, she became friends with a group Russian Jews who were fighting with the Russians.
She even earned a medal from them because she had helped a number of them escape from
a prison cell. Her bravery was not overlooked.
Returning to Buczacz she found that there wasnt much left for her there, so she
moved away with a person to a nearby town. She was in this town less than a few hours
when her and her friend were taken into custody by the Russian police. What had
happened was that her friend was suspected of selling things in the black market ( which
she was ) and the police wanted to find out who was buying things from her. Over a span
of 8 months they were kept but finally they were released. They received a lot of money
from people that had been saved by their withholding of evidence. Alicia and her friend
took this money and bought a train ticket to Lodz. They were stopped in Lvov because
they went to get some tea while stopped at a station, but the train took off without them
and they left all of their belongings on the train. Next they boarded a train to Krakow,
and parted ways there. In Krakow, Alicia was staying at a rather large house with another
family. She built a sort of orphanage by gathering up homeless children from the
neighborhood. She lived with this family for a long time, and during this time she learned
about a way that she could go to Eretz Island, Israel where she could be safe. She left her
orphanage and went on a long journey where she met many people that were like her, in
that she didnt like to see people suffer.
Alicia made it to Israel but was taken by British border patrol officers to a jail on
Cypress for coming into the country illegally. She was then released from Cyprus.


Many adults who graduate from high school immediately enter careers that do not require a college degree. Indeed, the majority of the adult population of the United States of America does not have college degrees. And the lack of degree is not a stigma.
Vocations usually do not require degrees. Certainly the many trade vocations in the building industry do not require college degrees, but instead either vocational training, on-the-job training, and combinations of both. The same applies to manufacturing, clerical, retail, and service positions. And one does not need a degree, college, nor indeed high school, to become President of the United States, or any other elected official!
A degree is usually required for professional positions, such as physicians, lawyers, engineers, scientists, accountants, teachers, among others. Many professions require advanced degrees, like masters, and doctoral degrees.

There may come a time, however, when an adult who is working full- time decides that it is time to pursue a college degree. There may be several reasons for such a conclusion. Many job descriptions in business and industry specify that a certain degree is required for advancement. Perhaps an airplane mechanic would like to be promoted to a management position that requires a college degree. Or a bookkeeper may wish to become an accountant. Or a nurse may desire a bachelor degree, beyond her R.N. certification; indeed, more hospitals are now requiring that their nurses hold bachelor, and in some cases master degrees.

How does a nurse, or bookkeeper, or airplane mechanic who is employed full-time pursue the required college course work that will lead to a fully accredited bachelor degree without taking up residency in a college full-time four years?
Fully accredited without residency is the objective of the pursuit of a non-traditional college degree. A college must be validated by one of six regional accreditation associations approved by the United States Department of Education in order to grant full accredited degrees. The six associations are:
New England Association of Schools and Colleges
Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools.

North Central Association of Colleges and Schools
Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges
Southern Association of Colleges and Schools
Western Association of Schools and Colleges
All of the colleges and universities in this country that offer fully accredited degrees do so by authority of one of the above geographical associations. There are several colleges that offer bachelor, master, and doctoral degrees that do not come under the authority of a regional accreditation association. Some of these colleges are authorized to offer degrees by the states in which they reside, mostly in California, Hawaii, Missouri, and Louisiana. However, degrees from these colleges are usually not recognized as bona-fide by most business, industry, and professional organizations that require college degrees as a requirement for employment.

Therefore, this report will deal with the limited number of colleges in the United States that will grant a fully-accredited bachelor degree without any residency requirement. There are many other colleges that offer alternate college degrees to adults, but have a short, medium, or extensive residency requirement. These colleges will not be covered in this report. For those interested in colleges with limited residency requirements, they will find useful a manual by John Bear, Ph.D., College Degrees by Mail, See Recommended Reading at the conclusion of this report.
There are many Bachelor programs that can be pursued, among them: Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Bachelor of Science in Applied Science and Technology, Bachelor of Science in Human Services, Bachelor of Science in Nursing, and other programs that may be specifically designed by the student and college. Most bachelor programs include specializations, such as Bachelor of Arts in Journalism, Bachelor of Science in Aviation.

Usually, 120 semester hours of credit are required for a degree. Typically, one college course, like Algebra, is worth three semester hours. Therefore, it is likely that 40 courses, each worth three semester hours will be required for a degree. This may sound simple, but it really isn’t. Virtually all colleges require proper distribution of credits. One cannot take 40 of the easiest courses and walk away with a degree. There are core subjects that are required, as English, Mathematics, History, Literature, Sociology, Psychology, Philosophy. English subjects include composition, and written expression; Mathematics include algebra, trigonometry, and perhaps calculus. Each subject has several sub- subjects that may be required for proper distribution of credits.
Following is a an example of credit distribution requirements for a Bachelor of Arts degree, whether traditional or non-traditional see Appendix D:
Liberal Arts Requirements…………………..60
Written Expression 6
Humanities 12
Social Sciences12
Natural Sciences ; Mathematics12
Liberal Arts Electives 18
Area Concentration or Specialization…………33
Free Electives…………………………….27
So there are no short cuts to an accredited college degree. As a matter of fact, non-resident college degrees may be more difficult than spending four years at a resident college.
The reason is that independent study requires much self-discipline and motivation. When one attends a resident college, courses usually consist of 15 weeks of class study, in a classroom with an instructor. At the end of a course there is a final examination, and the instructor grades the student including class participation, assignments, and interim test scores, combined with the final examination. There is always an instructor at hand, and the student has an indication of how she or he is progressing.

Independent study therefore means that the you as a student are on your own, and will submit course work by mail, computer, or phone. Instructors are usually available for consultation, but it is time consuming, especially since most students who pursue independent study have full time jobs. Most educators agree that non- traditional degrees from accredited institutions of higher learning are achieved by motivated scholars with a high degree of self discipline and determination.

After emphasizing that there are no short cuts to an independent degree, it should please you to know that you may already have knowledge that can count as course work. Non-traditional colleges usually award credit for life experience, work experience, on-the- job training, military service, and testing programs. This will be determined when you register and submit a portfolio that will be evaluated by the college. For instance, a Registered Nurse may be awarded as many as 60 credits toward a degree. This is half the degree requirement. A Licensed Practical Nurse may already have 30 or 40 credits. An airplane mechanic 50 credits, a bookkeeper 60 credits.

The recommended non-traditional colleges in this report will accept successful completion of college equivalency examinations toward a degree. The most popular examination is the College Level Examination Program, or CLEP offered by the College Entrance Examination Board, P.O. Box 6600, Princeton, NJ 08541-6600. There are about 30 subjects that may be taken by CLEP, and each college has its own criteria for passing grades. CLEP tests are not easy, and you must really know your subjects well. Indeed, after taking a CLEP test, you may discover that class work is easier. But thousands of students pass CLEP tests every year. Bookstores sell course guides to help students pass CLEP tests.

Active military personnel have the opportunity to participate in the Defense Activity for Non-Traditional Education Support, or DANTES, which administers its own exams, as well as the CLEP tests. Almost all military bases have an office of continuing education where preparatory studies are provided and tests administered. Information can be obtained from base information offices. Non- traditional colleges usually accept transcripts from DANTES.

Everyone lives near a regionally accredited college, either a four- year college, or a two-year community or junior college, and most colleges admit adults to credit courses, and issue transcripts that will be accepted by non-traditional colleges, if the courses meet the distribution requirements toward the degree. And for those who have previously taken college courses in the past, even if in the distant past, a transcript will likely be accepted.

More than fifty colleges offer course by mail. The work is not easy, but most colleges allow one year to finish the course. Students use the required texts, and send assignments to their appointed instructors for grading and comments. Examinations are supervised by proctors in the students area, after the colleges offering the course grant approval to the proctors. Proctors perform the service as a courtesy and are usually not paid, in the spirit of America’s great educational progress. A directory of schools offering correspondence course may be purchased from books stores. It is called The Independent Study Catalog see Recommended Reading at the conclusion of this report.

This is the most important part of this report. Selecting the right college to obtain a regionally accredited non-resident bachelor degree is essential. There are two colleges that offer degrees that do not require the student to take any courses at their campus. And students may register without ever having to go to the college. They are:
I.The University of the State of New York, Regents College, 1450 Western Avenue, Albany, NY 12230 (phone 518-474-3703).

Founded in 1784, it is the oldest college offering non- traditional degrees. Their extensive catalog is free, and their degree is offered to anyone in the world. This university is not to be confused with the State University of New York (SUNY), which is the traditional statewide system. The University of the State of New York is efficient and prestigious. A diploma from this institution has a nice ring to it. “Where did you go to college?” – “The University of the State of New York.”
2.Thomas Edison State College, 101 West State Street, Trenton, NJ 08625 (phone (609-984-1150). Established in 1972, it is similar to the University of the State of New York. They also have an extensive catalog. The writer of this report will have earned his Bachelor of Science in Aviation from this college. The college has its own equivalency examinations, called TECEP see Appendices B and C.

Both of the above colleges are accredited by the Middle Association of Colleges and Schools, one of the six regional accrediting agencies approved by the United States Department of Education.

There are other colleges and universities that offer non- traditional degrees, but these colleges may have limitations. Some require a conference with staff as a condition of enrollment. Some have a very short residency requirement, from three days to periodic visits. The least restrictive, allegedly without residency requirements, are listed below:
Bemidji State University, Center for Extended Learning, 1500 Birchmont Drive, N.E., # 27, Bemidji, MN 56601. Phone: (218) 755-3294. Accredited by the North Central Association.

City University, 16661 Northrup Way, Bellevue, WA 98008. Phone: (206) 643-2000. Accredited by the Northwest Association.

Eckerd College, Experienced Learners Program, 4200 54th Avenue South, St Petersburg, FL 33711. Phone: (813) 864-8226.

Accredited by the Southern Association.

Empire State College, State University of New York, Saratoga Springs, NY 12866-2100. Phone (518) 587-2100. Accredited by the Middle States Association.

Indiana University, Extended Studies, 620 Union Drive, Indianapolis IN 46202. Phone: (317) 274-3943.

Accredited by North Central Association.

Ohio University, Adult External Program, 301 Tupper Hall, Athens, OH 45701. Phone (614) 593-2150. Accredited by North Central Association.

Troy State University, Whitley Hall, P.O. Box 4419, Montgomery AL 36103. Phone: (295) 241-9553. Accredited by the Southern Association.

University of Iowa, Continuing Education Credit Programs, 116 International Center, Iowa City, IA 52242. Phone (319) 335- 2575. Accredited by the North Central Association.

Western Illinois University, Continuing Education, Horrabin Hall 5, Macomb, IL 61455. Phone (309) 298-1929. Accredited by North Central Association.

The complete cost of a non-traditional college degree is not easy to calculate. It depends on what each student has already accomplished. A ballpark range would between ten and fifteen thousand dollars. Thomas A. Edison College’s administration costs that include application fee, annual enrollment fee, credit transfer fee, graduation fee, etc. comes to about $1500.

Add to that the fees per credit that colleges charge for their courses. At $100 per credit, the cost for 120 credits is $12,000. Community colleges charge less per credit, perhaps $50 per credit. Correspondence course cost about $300 each. And then there are textbooks, which can be purchased new, second-hand, or borrowed. Forty courses that require textbooks at $ 50. each comes to $2000.

Add phone calls and postage, supplies. So fifteen to twenty thousand dollars makes sense. There are bargains out there. Ohio University appears to be a bargain. Some are much more expensive.

Where can you get a college education for $12,000? Nowhere, not even state colleges can offer a complete college education within a $12,000 budget, especially when you add incidentals as food, lodging, entertainment, and travel.

This report is just a beginning. Much more detailed information can be obtained from public libraries, and local colleges, and bookstores, and, of course, from the colleges listed here. Earning a non-traditional bachelor degree requires independence, self- discipline, motivation, and hard work. It requires tenacity, and the best place to start is by researching the best non-traditional college for you. Hopefully, this report will whet your appetite.

Go to it. There is nothing more gratifying than earning a college degree. And on the trip, a new age of enlightenment will enter your consciousness. Go to it!
College Degrees by Mail, by John Bear, Ph.D,; Ten Speed Press; P.O. Box 7123, Berkeley, CA, 94707; phone (510) 559-1600. This book is almost required reading for anyone attempting to get a non- traditional degree. Dr. Bear also recommends worthy schools that are not regionally accredited, but the writer of this report recommends that only a regionally accredited degree should be considered.

The Independent Study Catalog, Peterson’s Guides for the National University Continuing Education Association. This guide lists thousands of college courses by mail from more than seventy colleges and universities see Appendix A
INTRODUCTION ………………………………………..Page 1
FULLY ACCREDITED …………………………………….Page 2
HOW CREDIT IS EARNED …………………………………Page 6
COST……………………………………………….Page 12
CONCLUSION …………………………………………Page 13
RECOMMENDED READING………………………………….Page 14
APPENDIX A ……Copy cover of Peterson’s Independent Study Catalog
APPENDIX B ….Copy cover of Thomas A. Edison State College Catalog
APPENDIX C …… Sample application to Thomas Edison State College
APPENDIX D ………..Copy of Transcript from Elizabethtown College

Ebola And Symptoms And Effects

2. 1970

Ebola virus is a relatively recently discovered virus, that when it infects
humans, caries with it a 50-90% fatality rate. Symptoms of this deadly virus
include Sudden Fever, Weakness, Muscle Pain, Headache, Sore Throat, Vomiting,
Diarrhea, Rash. Internal results include Limited Kidney Function, Limited Liver
Function, and Internal and External Bleeding.

The incubation period for the Ebola virus ranges from 2 to 21 days, depending
upon the method of infection. A direct inoculation of the virus into the bloodstream of
a human will bring about symptoms markedly faster than other forms of less direct
contact. The virus is present in the male’s reproductive fluids, and can be transmitted
through sexual contact for up to 7 weeks after clinical recovery from the Ebola virus.

The Ebola virus can be diagnosed with laboratory testing of blood specimens
under maximum containment conditions – because of the high risk of infection to those
handling infected blood.
There is currently no treatment or vaccination available for the Ebola virus.

Transmission of the Ebola virus occurs by direct contact with the bodily fluids
of patients infected with the virus. The handling of chimpanzees that are either ill or
have died from the Ebola virus can also transmit the virus.
Any suspicion of infection with the Ebola virus should be treated with extreme
caution: immediate isolation from other patients and strict barrier nursing techniques
must be practiced. All instruments, clothing, or biological matter must be either
disposed of or thoroughly disinfected immediately.

The initial outbreaks of the Ebola virus occurred in 1976. Springing forth from
unknown origins, this virus held the nations of Zaire in fear as it quickly claimed the lives
of many of it’s citizens. As this was the first recorded outbreak of the Ebola virus, the
medical community was unsure of how to handle Ebola. The level of care in Zaire during
this outbreak was very low, and as a result of the many infected victims congregated in
public areas, the virus continued to spread among the denizens of Zaire. The intervening
years have slowly produced scientific data on the nature of the virus – yet treatment is still
unavailable for those infected.
The first outbreak, as stated earlier, occurred in Zaire in 1976. This first outbreak
was followed by one in western Sudan, also in 1976. In total, these two outbreaks have
been traced to the deaths of 340 people – resulting from the 550 plus cases that were
identified in these two nations.After lying dormant for several years the Ebola virus once
again made it’s presence known in 1979. Once again, no cause was identified as 34 cases
of Ebola were identified in Sudan. This occurrence brought the deaths of 22 patients –
showing a fatality rate of more than 60%, just as in the 1976 outbreaks.
The next instance of humans contracting the Ebola virus occurred in 1995. The
Ebola Zaire strain was discovered once again on April 10, 1995 when a patient
hospitalized for what was believed to be Malaria infected the surgical team during an
operation. Those involved with the operation developed symptoms indicating a viral
haemorrhagic fever disease. This outbreak occurred in the city of Kikwit, Zaire. Although
the virus was spreading at a rapid rate, a coordinated effort of international health services
was able to contain the outbreak. Present in this coalition of health organizations was the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the CDC) and the World Health Organization
– aided by members of the medical community from France, Belgium, and several southern
African nations. In this most recent epidemic (defined as all cases occurring from 1 July
1995), approximately 233 deaths have been caused, and 293 cases identified as Ebola –
bringing the fatality rate to nearly 80% in the outbreak of 1995)
Ebola was also detected in the United States in 1989, but this strain of the virus, known as
Ebola Reston, is not harmful to the Homo Sapien population. In 1989 a shipment of
African Green and Rhesus Monkeys arrived in Reston, Virginia from the Philippines.

These monkeys were infected with the Ebola virus, yet no human cases were documented.

149 workers came into contact with these monkeys in Reston, Virginia and not one
became ill – although two did develop antibodies for Ebola Reston.
A recent outbreak of the Ebola Virus occurred in November of 1995. There had
been a rash of deaths in the population of chimpanzees living within the Tai Forest. On 24
November 1995, a Swiss researcher on the Cote d’Ivore of West Africa contracted the
disease from an infected chimpanzee in the Tai Forest. The researcher was rushed to a
Swiss hospital where she recovered. After an autopsy of the chimpanzee indicated that it
was showing effects similar to those visible in human patients, a search began for the
locale the virus is indigenous to. However, the Tai Forest comprises over 4200 square
kilometers, and field researchers were unable to locate the virus.
The Ebola virus has not been very researchable. Part of the difficulty is that the
virus is so communicable, research must be conducted in very strictly controlled
settings requiring safeguards and equipment that are beyond the reach of many
laboratories. Also, because of the Ebola virus’ very lethal tendencies, it is
extraordinarily difficult to obtain a specimen for research.
The most concentrated research efforts to date have been performed by the
World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Although some understanding of the virus has occurred, much of the information
needed to develop a treatment and vaccine still remains elusive to researchers.

Research has led to a better understanding of the pattern of symptoms which
the Ebola virus causes in humans. Most patients arrive overtly ill, dehydrated,
apathetic, and disoriented – further medical investigation quickly shows other
symptoms indicating an infection with the Ebola virus. The Ebola virus is best known
for the extraordinary amount of bleeding, both internal and external, that it causes in
it’s victims. The death of the patient usually occurs within 7 to 16 days, with the
specific cause being shock – often accompanied with severe blood loss.
As early as 10-14 days after infection with either the Marburg or Ebola viruses,
an immune response can be detected. The primary response of the immune system is to
produce antibodies against the surface glycoproteins. This response is relatively
ineffective in that the Ebola still flourishes within the human body and is fatal to most
infected persons. There is also little known about the cell-mediated response to these
The pathology of the Ebola virus produces lesions found in liver, spleen, and
kidney. They are characterized by focal hepatic necrosis and by follicular necrosis of
the lymph nodes and spleen. As the disease progress into it’s later stages, hemorrhage
occurs in the gastrointestinal track, pleural, pericardinal, and peritoneal spaces.

Abnormalities in the coagulation occur(blood), suggesting that disseminated
coagulation is a terminal event. Research also points out that macrophages and
fibroblasts appear to be the initial and also preferred site of replication by Ebola.
Experimental treatments have included human interferon, human convalescent
plasma and anticoagulation therapy. These treatments, however, have met with mixed
results and any success is quite controversial. The only effective preventative measure
currently known is to crate a physical barrier of some sort – surgical masks, quarantine
wards, et cetera – that is capable of blocking the transmission of the virus to currently
uninfected patients.

As stated previously, past research has been significantly slowed as a result of the
extreme pathogenicity of the Ebola virus, as well as the Marburg virus. Recombinant DNA
technology holds hope in that the molecular structure of the virus is beginning to be
understood. This type of research will also lead to an understanding of the way in which
this virus replicates itself and the interactions that occur between virus and host. The goal
is to gain an understanding of the frequency, ways in which it is transmitted, and also to
identify where in nature the Ebola virus naturally resides – to identify it’s initial host
Ebola timeline/ Overview
1. Viral hemorrhagic fever in southern Sudan and Northern Zaire. Bowen et al., Lancet,
’77, 1:571-573.
2. Management of patients with suspected viral hemorrhagic fever. CDC-Morbidity and
Mortality Weekly Report, Supp. 37/S-3:1-16, 1988.
3. Update: Ebola-related filovirus infection in nonhuman primates and interim guidelines
for handling nonhuman primates during transit and quarantine. CDC- MMWR,
4. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. CDC/NIH, HHS Publication
No.CDC-1993, 3rd Edition.
5. Epidemiologic investigation of Marburg virus disease, Southern Africa, 1975. Conrad,
et al., Am. J.Trop. Med. Hyg.,’78, 27:1210-1215.
6. Molecular biology and evolution of filoviruses. Feldmann et al., Arch.Virol (supp)
7. Association of Ebola-related Reston virus particles and antigen with tissue lesions of
monkeys imported to the United States, Geisbert et al., J. Comp. Path., ’92, 106:137-152.
8. Preliminary Report: isolation of Ebola virus from monkeys imported to USA, Jahrling
et al., Lancet, ’90, 335:502-05.
9. Isolation and partial characterization of a new virus causing acute hemorrhagic fever in
Zaire. Johnson, et al., Lancet, ’77, 1:569-571.
10. Agent of disease contracted from green monkeys. Kissling et al., ’68, Science, , 160,
11. Pathology of Ebola virus infection. Murphy, F.A.. in: Ebola Virus Hemorrhagic fever,
ed.Pattyn, pp 37-42. 1978. Elesvier/North Holland, Amsterdam.
12. Marburg virus morphology and taxonomy. Murphy, F.A. (in same text as above). pp
13. Marburg virus infection in monkeys. Murphy et al. Lab. invest., ’71, 24:279-291. 14.

Filorviruses. Peters CJ et al. in: Emerging Viruses. S.Morse, Ed., pp 159-75. Oxford
University Press, New York. 1991.
15. Filoviruses as emerging pathogens. Peters CJ et al. Seminars in Virology, ’94,
16. Sequence analysis of the Ebola virus genome: organization, genetic elements, and
comparison with Marburg. Sanchez et al., Virus Res. ’93, 29:215-240.
17. Firsthand clinical observations of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Zaire. Rev. Inf. Dis., ’89,

Stephen Leacock’s Arcadian Adventures with the Idl

e Rich Arcadian Adventures with the Idle Rich EssaysStephen Leacock’s Arcadian Adventures with the Idle Rich
Jonathan Swift has suggested that “Satire is a sort of
Glass, wherein Beholders do generally discover every body’s Face
their own; which is the chief reason…that so few are offended
with it.” Richard Garnett suggests that, “Without humour, satire
is invictive; without literary form, and it is mere clownish
jeering.” (Encyclopaedia Britannica 14th ed. vol. 20 p. 5).

Whereas Swift’s statement suggests that people are not offended
by satire because readers identify the character’s faults with
their own faults; Garnett suggests that humour is the key element
that does not make satire offensive. With any satire someone is
bound to be offended, but the technique the author uses can
change something offensive into something embarrassing.

Stephen Leacock’s Arcadian Adventures with the Idle Rich is
a nonthreatening, humorous, and revealing satire of the moral
faults of upper class society. The satire acts as a moral
instrument to expose the effect money can have on religion,
government, and anything within its touch. Writing about such
topics is hard to do without offending people. Leacock’s
technique combines money with humour, and accompanies his moral
message with ironic characters; their exaggerated actions, and a
constant comical tone to prevent readers from being offended.

Leacock’s utopian world is filled with humorous labels that
represent the “Plutonian’s” personalities. “Ourselves Monthly”; a
magazine for the modern self-centered, is a Plutonian favourite.

To fill their idle days, the Plutonian women are in an endless
search for trends in literature and religion. Without the
distractions of club luncheons and trying to achieve the “Higher
Indifference”, the women would have to do something productive.

Readers that identify themselves with the class of people the
Plutonians represent would be embarrassed rather than offended by
Leacock’s satirical portrayal of them.

“The Yahi-Bahi Oriental Society” exaggerates the stupidity
of the Plutonians to a point where the reader laughs at the
character’s misfortunes. The con men give ridiculous prophecies
such as “Many things are yet to happen before others begin.”
(Leacock 87), and eventually take their money and jewelry. The
exaggeration increases the humour while the moral message is

The characters of the novel are ironic in the sence that
they percieve themselves as being the pinicle of society, yet
Leacock makes the look like fools. For someone who prides
themself on being an expert on just about everything, Mr.

Lucullus Fyshe’s (as slimmy and cold as his name represents)
perceptions are proven false. Mr. Fyshe makes hypocratic
statments about ruling class tyranny, while barking down the neck
of a poor waiter for serving cold asparagus.

Leacock exposes the whole Plutonian buisness world to be
fools by the their encounter with Mr. Tomlinson. A man who knows
live-stock; not stock market, is percieved as a finacial genius.

When Mr. Tomlinson replies that he does know about an investment,
the Plutonian reaction is:
“He said he didn’t Know!” repeated the listener, in a
tone of amazement and respect. “By Jove! eh? he said
he didn’t know! The man’s a wizard!”
“And he looked as if he didn’t!” went on Mr. Fyshe.
(Leacock 47)
After Mr. Tomlinson is discovered to be a plain farmer, and his
fortune falls, the Plutorians are seen eating their words:
“Now , ‘I said , for I wanted to test the fellow, `tell
me what that means?’ Would you believe me, he looked
me right in the face in that stupid way of his, and he
said, `I don’t know!'”
“He said he didn’t know!” repeated the listener
contemptuously; “the man is a fool!” (leacock 66)
On Plutoria avenue money makes the man and the fool.

Worth and expense are important for the inhabitants of
Plutoria avenue. Even the birds are “the most expensive kind of
birds” (Leacock 7). The innocents, Mr. Tomlinson and his family,
show that for Plutorians personal worth is based on the amount of
money an individual has. The media builds up Mr. Tomlinson to be
a financial genius, because of his great amount of money and his
mysterious look. His “look” is a confused man caught in a world
of which he has no understanding, but the money makes him the
“Great dominating character of the newest and highest finance.”
(Leacock 36). Mr. Tomlinson’s wife is described by the media as
setting new trends, and shaking the fashion world. She could have
worn a garbage bag in public, and probably received the same
review. Leacock exaggerates the obsession of money to a humorous
point that not even religion is spared.
Religion is a social event and business opportunity for
Plutonians. Rather than spiritual worth, St. Asaph and St. Osoph
churches are humorously described by mortgages, dollars per
square feet, and Bible give away debits. Priests work for the
church that offers them the most money, and has the best social
life. It would not be surprising if the two churches sold

In the real world corruption of the church would be
offensive to allot of people, but when desguised in humour
Leacock shields the readers from personal offence.

Leacock touches on the controvesal topic of updating church
doctrine by creating a humorous misunderstanding between Rev.

Furlong and his father:
“Now we,” he went on, “I mean the Hymnal Supply
Corporation, have an idea for bringing out an entirely new
Bible.” /
“A new Bible!” he gasped.

“Precisely!” said his father, “a new Bible! This one –
and we find it every day in our business – is all
“All wrong!” said the rector with horror on his face. /
“For the market of to-day this Bible” – and he poised
it again on his hand, as to test its weight, “is too
heavy. The people of to-day want something lighter,
something easier to get hold of.” (Leacock 149).

The humorous exchange is not offensive, yet maintains its moral

Satire’s primary use is to expose. If no one was offended
or embarrassed by it then the work and the humour is an end in
itself. Leacock’s technique creates a
Works cited
Garnett, Richard. Encyclopedia Brtannica, 14th ed. Chicago:
Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 1959.

Leacock, Stephen. Arcadian Adventures with the Idle Rich.
Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited, 1989.

Works consulted
Allen and Stephens. Satire, Theory and Practice. ed. Allen and
Stephens. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing
Company,Inc., 1962.

Solar Cells

Solar cells today are mostly made of silicon, one of the most common
elements on Earth. The crystalline silicon solar cell was one of the first
types to be developed and it is still the most common type in use today. They do
not pollute the atmosphere and they leave behind no harmful waste products.

Photovoltaic cells work effectively even in cloudy weather and unlike solar
heaters, are more efficient at low temperatures. They do their job silently and
there are no moving parts to wear out. It is no wonder that one marvels on how
such a device would function.

To understand how a solar cell works, it is necessary to go back to some
basic atomic concepts. In the simplest model of the atom, electrons orbit a
central nucleus, composed of protons and neutrons. each electron carries one
negative charge and each proton one positive charge. Neutrons carry no charge.

Every atom has the same number of electrons as there are protons, so, on the
whole, it is electrically neutral. The electrons have discrete kinetic energy
levels, which increase with the orbital radius. When atoms bond together to form
a solid, the electron energy levels merge into bands. In electrical conductors,
these bands are continuous but in insulators and semiconductors there is an
“energy gap”, in which no electron orbits can exist, between the inner valence
band and outer conduction band Book 1. Valence electrons help to bind together
the atoms in a solid by orbiting 2 adjacent nucleii, while conduction electrons,
being less closely bound to the nucleii, are free to move in response to an
applied voltage or electric field. The fewer conduction electrons there are, the
higher the electrical resistivity of the material.

In semiconductors, the materials from which solar sells are made, the
energy gap Eg is fairly small. Because of this, electrons in the valence band
can easily be made to jump to the conduction band by the injection of energy,
either in the form of heat or light Book 4. This explains why the high
resistivity of semiconductors decreases as the temperature is raised or the
material illuminated. The excitation of valence electrons to the conduction band
is best accomplished when the semiconductor is in the crystalline state, i.e.

when the atoms are arranged in a precise geometrical formation or “lattice”.

At room temperature and low illumination, pure or so-called “intrinsic”
semiconductors have a high resistivity. But the resistivity can be greatly
reduced by “doping”, i.e. introducing a very small amount of impurity, of the
order of one in a million atoms. There are 2 kinds of dopant. Those which have
more valence electrons that the semiconductor itself are called “donors” and
those which have fewer are termed “acceptors” Book 2.

In a silicon crystal, each atom has 4 valence electrons, which are shared
with a neighbouring atom to form a stable tetrahedral structure. Phosphorus,
which has 5 valence electrons, is a donor and causes extra electrons to appear
in the conduction band. Silicon so doped is called “n-type” Book 5. On the
other hand, boron, with a valence of 3, is an acceptor, leaving so-called
“holes” in the lattice, which act like positive charges and render thesilicon
“p-type”Book 5. The drawings in Figure 1.2 are 2-dimensional representations
of n- and p-type silicon crystals, in which the atomic nucleii in the lattice
are indicated by circles and the bonding valence electrons are shown as lines
between the atoms. Holes, like electrons, will remove under the influence of an
applied voltage but, as the mechanism of their movement is valence electron
substitution from atom to atom, they are less mobile than the free conduction
electrons Book 2.

In a n-on-p crystalline silicon solar cell, a shadow junction is formed by
diffusing phosphorus into a boron-based base. At the junction, conduction
electrons from donor atoms in the n-region diffuse into the p-region and combine
with holes in acceptor atoms, producing a layer of negatively-charged impurity
atoms. The opposite action also takes place, holes from acceptor atoms in the p-
region crossing into the n-region, combining with electrons and producing
positively-charged impurity atoms Book 4. The net result of these movements is
the disappearance of conduction electrons and holes from the vicinity of the
junction and the establishment there of a reverse electric field, which is
positive on the n-side and negative on the p-side. This reverse field plays a
vital part in the functioning of the device. The area in which it is set up is
called the “depletion area” or “barrier layer”Book 4.

When light falls on the front surface, photons with energy in excess of the
energy gap (1.1 eV in crystalline silicon) interact with valence electrons and
lift them to the conduction band. This movement leaves behind holes, so each
photon is said to generate an “electron-hole pair” Book 2. In the crystalline
silicon, electron-hole generation takes place throughout the thickness of the
cell, in concentrations depending on the irradiance and the spectral composition
of the light. Photon energy is inversely proportional to wavelength. The highly
energetic photons in the ultra-violet and blue part of the spectrum are absorbed
very near the surface, while the less energetic longer wave photons in the red
and infrared are absorbed deeper in the crystal and further from the junction
Book 4. Most are absorbed within a thickness of 100 m.

The electrons and holes diffuse through the crystal in an effort to produce
an even distribution. Some recombine after a lifetime of the order of one
millisecond, neutralizing their charges and giving up energy in the form of heat.

Others reach the junction before their lifetime has expired. There they are
separated by the reverse field, the electrons being accelerated towards the
negative contact and the holes towards the positive Book 5. If the cell is
connected to a load, electrons will be pushed from the negative contact through
the load to the positive contact, where they will recombine with holes. This
constitutes an electric current. In crystalline silicon cells, the current
generated by radiation of a particular spectral composition is directly
proportional to the irradiance Book 2. Some types of solar cell, however, do
not exhibit this linear relationship.

The silicon solar cell has many advantages such as high reliability,
photovoltaic power plants can be put up easily and quickly, photovoltaic power
plants are quite modular and can respond to sudden changes in solar input which
occur when clouds pass by. However there are still some major problems with them.

They still cost too much for mass use and are relatively inefficient with
conversion efficiencies of 20% to 30%. With time, both of these problems will be
solved through mass production and new technological advances in semiconductors.

1) Green, Martin Solar Cells, Operating Principles, Technology and System
Applications. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1989. pg 104-106
2) Hovel, Howard Solar Cells, Semiconductors and Semimetals. New York, Academic
Press, 1990. pg 334-339
3) Newham, Michael ,”Photovoltaics, The Sunrise Industry”, Solar Energy, October
1, 1989, pp 253-256
4) Pulfrey, Donald Photovoltaic Power Generation. Oxford, Van Norstrand Co.,
1988. pg 56-61
5) Treble, Fredrick Generating Electricity from the Sun. New York, Pergamon
Press, 1991. pg 192-195
Category: Science

Veering Point

What were the causes and effects of World War I? The answer to this seemingly simple question is not elementary. There was more to the onset of the war then the event of an Austrian prince being murdered in Serbia, as is what most people consider to be the cause of World War I. Furthermore, the effects of the war were not just concentrated to a post-war era lasting for a generation of Westerners. No, the effects of the war were widespread throughout the world and can be traced to generations after the war..It is not a rare occasion that when a person is asked what the causes of World War I were, that they answer with the simple comment of an Austrian Prince being shot in Serbia. However the assignation of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie , in Sarajevo was not the main cause of the Great War. Rather, it was the breaking point for Austria in its dealings with Serbia. The truth of the matter is that several factors played a role in the outbreak of the catastrophic war the engulfed the nations of Europe for over four years. World War I truly was the result of building aggressions among the countries of Europe which was backed by the rise of nationalism. To add to the disastrous pot, there was also imperial competition along with the fear of war prompting military alliances and an arms race. All of these increased the escalating tensions that lead to the outbreak of a world war. (Mckay, pg. 904)Two opposing alliances developed by the Bismarckian diplomacy after the Franco- Prussian War was one of the major causes of the war. In order to diplomatically isolate France, Bismarck formed the Three Emperor’s League in 1872, which was an alliance between Germany, Russia, and Austria-Hungary. Then in 1882 , Bismarck took advantage of Italian resentment toward France and formed the Triple Alliance between Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungry. In 1890 Bismarck was dismissed from his office and France took the opportunity to gain an ally, therefore , in 1891 the Franco- Russian Entente was formed. Then in 1904 Britain and France put aside their conflicts and formed the Entente Cordiale. As a result , the Triple Entente , a coalition between Great Britain, France , and Russia, countered the Triple Alliance. Now Europe was divided up into two armed camps.(World Book Encyclopedia, WXYZ, pg. 367)Nationalism also played a major role in developing tensions in Europe; for it had been causing dissatisfaction since the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In that settlement the preservment of peace was chosen over nationalism, therefore, Germany and Italy were left as divided states, though they did unify in the future. The Franco- Prussian War in 1871 resulted in the France’s loss of the province of Alasce- Lorraine to Germany, and the French looked forward to regaining their lands. Then there was Austria- Hungary which controlled many lands that their neighbors felt belonged to them. Serbia wanted Bosnia and Hercegovina, Italy wanted the Trentino and Trieste regions, and the Czechs and Solvaks wanted independence from Austria- Hungrey. There was also Russia which had problems within it’s own boundaries; for Russia contained many different nationalities and many were also seeking independence in the name of nationalism. ( World Book Encyclopedia, WXYZ, pg. 366)Another major conflict that caused the outbreak of the Great War was what is known as the arms race. With the hostile divisions of the nations of Europe there came the expansion of armies and navies. Furthermore, the great powers came to copy Germany’s military organization and efficiency, which called for universal registration for military duty, large reserves and detailed planning. Efforts were made for universal disarmament, but the ” international rivalry caused the arms race to continue to feed on itself. ” (Karpilovsky, World Wide Web)Imperial competition also played a major rule in the act of increasing the ever growing tensions among the divided countries of Europe. In Africa there were two crises in Morocco. The first time, in 1905, Germany full heartedly supported Morocco’s call for independence from France, and with the British defending the French war was only avoided because of an international conference which made Morocco a French protectorate. The second crisis occurred in 1911, and it was in protest to French supremacy in Morocco. The Germans finally gave the French a free hand in Morocco, but with a price. They demanded in exchange a portion if of the French Congo. Around this same era there was also a Bosnian crisis, which began with Austria- Hungary’s takeover of the province of Bosnia in 1908. For this Serbia threatened war on Austria- Hungary with the pledged backing of Russia. As they began to mobilize, Austria- Hungary , with the alliance of Germany, threaten war on Russia. When Russia backed down, the soon to be war was postponed, but left was a greatly strained relationship between Serbia and Austria Hungary. (Karpilovsky, World Wide Web)On June 28, 1914 the battle lines were drawn with the assassinations in Sarajevo. It was believed that the crime was committed by a Serbian nationalist, and immediately following it Germany , with its full support pledged, pressed Austria- Hungary into declaring war on Serbia. At this same time, France was strengthening its backing of Russia. War might have been avoided if Serbia had excepted Austria- Hungary’s harsh ultimatum, however they faithfully refused. Almost at once the war fell into place. Austria declared war on July 28, 1914. The next day Russia mobilized against Austria- Hungary, on August 1st Germany declared war on Russia, and two days later on France. When Germany disregarded Belgium’s neutrality, Britain declared war on Germany. Finally war had begun, and unlike the predictions that had been made the resulting war was long, indecisive, and reeked havoc on the nations of Europe. (Karpilovsky, World Wide Web)The Great War officially ended in January of 1919 with a peace conference in Paris which represented twenty- seven triumphant nations. However almost immediately the great powers, United States, Great Britain, and France, were at odds with each other. President Wilson, the representative of the United States, was insist on first and foremost dealing with the creation of the League of Nations; while France and Britain on punishing Germany. In the long run France gave up on having a buffer zone between itself and Germany for a defensive alliance with the United States and Britain, and Wilson got the formation of the League of Nations. These developments were not the key items at the conference, rather it was the Treaty of Versailles. This treaty was made between the Allies and Germany, and it began to re-establish order. In the treaty, all of Germany’s colonies were divided among the nations, thought it sustained minor losses of territory within Europe. Its standing army was reduced to 100,00 men, and they could not have forts in the Rhineland. The clause that angered most people was the one that made Germany claim responsibility for the war, and imposed reparations .Thought Germany’s new republican government found the treaty to be harsh, they signed it and their discontent set the stage for the Second World War. (McKay, pg. 926-927)Germany was not the only country to suffer because of the war; the world had been wiped clean of millions of people, and there was also extensive damage throughout Europe. However, these were not the only sufferings for the generation of the post- war era. The era followed with a great many economic difficulties throughout the world. The many industries that had been based on the war effort were no longer needed, thereby unemployment was on the rise, and the government had secured many debts to succeed in the war. With these aspects , and poor economic policies in many nations present it seemed that an economic crisis would occur sooner or later; which it did. In 1929 the American stock market came to a crashing halt, leaving many investors wiped out and the wealthy and confident without money. In the aftermath, banks began to fall because many loans feel through. With the financial crisis also came a decrease of production, and naturally this lead to widespread unemployment. This in turn lead to the fall of peoples spirits, and “homes and ways of life were disrupted in millions of personal tragedies.” (Mckay, pg. 957-958)The era of the Great Depression was also the era of the rise of political dictatorship throughout Europe. These dictatorships involved a new form of tyranny and were most evident in Stalin Soviet Union and Nazi Germany.( Mckay, pg.967) With hardships rising, people became more willing to put up with leaders like Stalin and Hitler. It is believed by many that Hitler would never have came to power if it had not been for the German peoples’ feelings of nationalism, and their discontent with the economy and the restrictions from the Treaty of Versailles. Hitler played on the people’s emotions, and he officially won the game when he legally took over as the dictator of Germany. The rise of Hitler is a very important effect of World War I because it lead to the Second World War. The leaders first tried to please Hitler by giving him what he asked in order to avoid war, however Hitler did not stop he kept on pushing for more. When Germany invaded Poland, war became inevitable. Britain and France declared war on Germany. The United States joined in on the war effort against Germany, Italy , and Japan after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. World War II was the last major effect of the First World War. (Mckay, pg.986-989)” The war solved no problem. Its effects, both immediate and indirect, were either negative or disastrous. Morally subversive, economically destructive, socially degrading. Confused in its causes, devious in its course, futile in its result, it is the outstanding example of European history of meaningless conflict.” These words of C.V Wedgewood are the perfect description of the Great War. World War I had many complex causes, rather than one simple which is what is believed by many people. Furthermore, the effects were widespread throughout generations all over the world.